Tag Archives: Virginia

North Dakota Gov. Jack Dalrymple will retire.

  • ND-Gov: Even though he probably could have easily won another term, Republican Gov. Jack Dalrymple has decided not to run for re-election next year. Dalrymple had served as lieutenant governor until 2010, when then-Gov. John Hoeven won election to the Senate, but Dalrymple handily won a full term in his own right in 2012. However, he’d been cagey about his future plans all cycle, so his retirement is not a surprise. And given the dominant role Republicans play in North Dakota politics, there will be plenty of candidates looking to succeed Dalrymple. We took note of a few possibilities in our Great Mentioner series earlier this year, including Lt. Gov. Drew Wrigley, state Attorney General Wayne Stenehjem, Public Service Commissioner Brian Kalk, and former Rep. Rick Berg, who lost a humiliating race for Senate three years ago to Heidi Heitkamp. And sure enough, Roll Call‘s Eli Yokley reports that both Wrigley and Stenehjem are interested, but they’re privately working out a deal where only one of them will run. Other names will surely pop up as well. Speaking of Heitkamp, she’s probably the one Democrat who could make the general election interesting. Almost from the moment she won her near-miraculous Senate campaign, she’s refused to rule out a bid for governor. It’s a post she came close to winning in 2000, the last time the seat was open. Heitkamp, who was the state’s attorney general at the time, actually led in the polls late in the race, but after she revealed she had breast cancer in October, she wound up losing to Hoeven 55-45. If she’s hungry for a second crack at the job, an open seat in a presidential year is going to be her best bet. But it would still be very difficult. It’s one thing to go from state office to Congress; it’s quite another to attempt the reverse. Republicans would tie Heitkamp to Barack Obama at every available opportunity, and while they certainly tried that in 2012, they’d now have an actual voting record to link her to. The intensely unlikeable Berg once griped, “Everyone’s pretty likable. The issue is not about a personality contest. This whole thing kind of boils down to, do you want someone who’s going to fight against President Obama.” That kind of attack fell just short before, but it should resonate more strongly now. There’s another issue at play here, too: Even if Heitkamp were to win, she wouldn’t be able to appoint a successor. That’s because the Republican-held legislature passed a law earlier this year that would require a special election in the event of a Senate vacancy, a move specifically designed to thwart Heitkamp and ensure her seat would return to Republican hands. (The GOP would be heavily favored to pick it up.) For that reason, national Democrats would certainly prefer that Heitkamp stay put. But on the flipside, Heitkamp’s alternative—seeking re-election in 2018—isn’t such an enticing prospect for her personally. After winning by just 1 percent in a presidential year, her prospects of victory in a midterm election, especially if a Democrat is in the White House, would be quite tough. Democrats will be on defense in many difficult seats that year (Montana, Indiana, and Missouri among them), and North Dakota would probably top that list. So even if a gubernatorial run would be a real challenge, Heitkamp might like her odds better in Bismarck than Washington.


  • IL-Sen: While much of the national Democratic establishment has sided with Rep. Tammy Duckworth, several state-level Democrats are showing a lot more reluctance. Both the state and Cook County Democratic Parties recently voted to remain neutral in the primary, and state Sen. Kwame Raoul has endorsed former Chicago Urban League head Andrea Zopp. Raoul, who holds Barack Obama’s old legislative seat, has been growing in prominence over the last few years, so he may have some pull. State Senate President John Cullerton is also touting a non-Duckworth Democrat, but his preferred pick is state Sen. Napoleon Harris. Cullerton says that he’ll back Harris should he get in: Harris hasn’t committed to anything yet, but he sounds increasingly likely to enter the contest. Cook County Commissioner Richard Boykin has also made noises about running and recently formed an exploratory committee, though there’s speculation he’s really just planning to run for the House if Rep. Danny Davis retires this cycle. The eventual nominee will face GOP Sen. Mark Kirk.
  • KY-Sen, Gov: On Saturday, the Kentucky Republican Party granted Sen. Rand Paul his wish when they voted to switch from a May presidential primary to a March caucus, giving Paul the ability to both run for re-election and for president. (Kentucky law prohibits a candidate from seeking multiple offices on the same ballot.) However, the Lexington Herald-Leader‘s Sam Youngman tells us that the state central committee came extremely close to rejecting their junior senator. Committee members were not at all persuaded by Paul’s promise to transfer $250,000 to the party to pay for the caucus, especially since Paul initially said he’d already sent them the money. Paul has also never had a good relationship with his party’s establishment, and they just didn’t trust him to transfer the money as he guaranteed that he would. Had the GOP voted to maintain the primary, Youngman says that Paul planned to run for re-election in Kentucky and for president in the other 49 states. However, Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell saved Paul from humiliation at literally the eleventh hour. A top McConnell aide and former RNC Chair Mike Duncan successfully pitched a compromise to the committee: There would be a caucus, but only if Paul transferred the $250,000 by Sept. 18. While Paul has never been a loyal vote for McConnell in the Senate, the two are allies back home. Paul quickly got behind McConnell’s 2014 re-election campaign and helped McConnell reach out to angry conservatives who might have otherwise have voted for Matt Bevin in the primary. On Saturday, it was McConnell’s turn to come to his colleague’s aid during his time of need. But the Kentucky GOP isn’t still one big happy family. On Friday, Paul endorsed Bevin’s gubernatorial bid, but Bevin declined to back Paul’s presidential campaign in return. Bevin claims that it has nothing to do with Paul’s role in last year’s Senate primary, but it’s hard to believe he didn’t get at least a little bit of satisfaction from spurning Paul.


  • NH-Gov: Executive Councilor Chris Sununu has made it no secret that he’s very interested in running for governor even if Democratic incumbent Maggie Hassan runs for re-election, but another Republican is making some noises about jumping in. State Rep. Frank Edelblut recently formed an exploratory committee and put $250,000 of his own money behind it. Edelblut has a business background and if he has some more money to burn, he could make things interesting.


  • CA-24: In the race to succeed retiring Rep. Lois Capps, Democratic Minority Leader Nancy Pelosi just endorsed Santa Barbara County Supervisor Salud Carbajal, the consensus favorite. Carbajal’s chief rival on the Democratic side is Santa Barbara Mayor Helene Schneider, but she’s struggled to earn much establishment support. Indeed, she’s one of just a few notable women candidates in the country who hasn’t earned the backing of EMILY’s List.
  • IL-13: The DCCC is talking to a new potential recruit to run against GOP Rep. Rodney Davis in Illinois’ swingy 13th District, assistant state Attorney General Tom Banning. He doesn’t have elective experience, but it sounds like he has an interesting background: He was raised by a single mother, then, he says, “worked [his] way out of poverty” by enlisting in the Marines. He served in Operation Just Cause (which terminated Manuel Noriega’s narco-kleptocracy in Panama in 1989), and then won a Bronze Star in Afghanistan with the Illinois National Guard. Another Democrat, Sangamon County Board member Tony DelGiorno, also says he’s interested, though it doesn’t sound like he’s been talking to the D-Trip. (In the words of the State Journal Register, “he plans to run as a progressive and thinks the DCCC is misguided if it wants a more conservative candidate.”) But he is pissed that perennial candidate David Gill, who’s unsuccessfully sought this seat four times as a Democrat, has decided to run again as an independent. DelGiornio rightly thinks that Gill can only act as a spoiler, and Gill doesn’t really disagree! Get a load of this delusional b.s.:

    “The presence of a Democrat will serve as a spoiler. I would win hands down if it was just independent me against Republican Davis.”

    This is insane, of course. Politics just doesn’t work this way, and Gill knows there will be a Democrat on the ballot. He could at least run for the party’s nomination again, but instead, he’s wants to be a purity troll and help keep Democrats in the minority in the House. What a schmuck.

  • KY-06: Kentucky’s 6th was one of those seats that sort of unexpectedly slipped away at the last moment in 2012: Democrats had actually managed to shore the district up a bit in redistricting, and Rep. Ben Chandler has always been a good fit for the area and had a reputation has a strong campaigner. But in a way, Chandler’s loss to Republican Andy Barr was sort of an overhang from 2010, despite the very different nature of the electoral climate. There simply wasn’t room anymore for a Blue Dog Democrat to represent coal country, not when Mitt Romney carried the district by a 56-42 margin. But despite the tough odds, the DCCC is trying to take a shot at reclaiming the seat by recruiting Matt Jones, a very popular sports radio host in Kentucky. Jones has lately been branching out from athletics to politics, and he even served as the emcee of this year’s Fancy Farm picnic. Both Jones and the D-Trip confirm they’ve been talking to one another, but Jones says he doesn’t want to make a decision until discuss it with his radio listeners—which is probably a savvy way of saying, “Let me put out some feelers and build up some buzz before I take the leap.” It would be a very difficult race for Jones, but basketball is like a religion in the Bluegrass State, and if he can win over a few parishioners who think it matters more than you support the University of Kentucky than Barack Obama, maybe he can drain a lucky bank-shot from beyond the arc.

Grab Bag:

  • Advertising: If you’re one of those people who pays close attention to the relative value of advertising dollars in different races (which doesn’t necessarily mean you’re a campaign pro; you might just be attempting to Moneyball your contributions), you’re probably well aware of the problem of “wasted eyeballs.” In short: Money gets spent on ads that mostly reach ineligible voters because they’re on the wrong side of state lines, or at the House level, of district lines. Google and digital firm Targeted Victory have put together an illustration that shows just how deep that problem goes: They calculate that nearly 75 percent of all spending on broadcast media on House races in 2014 (worth $240 million) was wasted. Bear in mind that these actors have an ulterior motive at work here by releasing this data: They’re trying to woo campaigns over to the more precise control that comes with digital media, instead of broadcast ads. Also keep in mind that broadcast ad buys tend to be targeted toward older voters who probably aren’t going to reached digitally anyway, since they aren’t spending much time, if any, online. But their interactive map is great fun to putter around on: you can check out the top 10 most wasteful House races of 2014 was IL-10, where there was a lot of money sloshing around and all the broadcast ads were in the Chicago market, where there are more than a dozen other districts covered, meaning 93 percent of all broadcast ad money was wasted. If you switch to the “find a district” mode, you can look at waste rates in the abstract in any district. The waste ranges between 0 percent in AK-AL and 6 percent in MT-AL, to races in the New York City and Los Angeles markets which are even worse than Chicago: In fact, NYC races feature 97 percent waste!
The Daily Kos Elections Morning Digest is compiled by David Nir and Jeff Singer, with additional contributions from David Jarman, Steve Singiser, and Daniel Donner.

The State of Social Security and Medicare ~ a repost

a repost


What You Need To Know From The Latest Social Security Trustees Annual Report

The latest annual report from the trustees for Social Security and Medicare came out today. It provided some very good news on the health care front: the report extended Medicare’s solvency by four years from 2026 to 2030. This improved financial health can be attributed in part to the Affordable Care Act, which is helping to reduce costs. Just a few years ago, before the Affordable Care Act was fully implemented, the trustees predicted that the Medicare trust fund would run out by 2016. Another reason to be thankful for the ACA.

On the Social Security front, some news reports are focusing on the financial shortfall that the program faces in the next 75 years. But it is both expected and manageable. Here are the four key takeaways, from a post by Center for American Progress experts Rebecca Vallas and Christian E. Weller:

1. Social Security can continue to pay all promised benefits for the next two decades. As was the case in last year’s report, the Trustees continue to estimate that Social Security will be able to pay all scheduled retirement, disability, and survivorship benefits through 2033. Social Security has two trust funds: one for the retirement and survivorship benefit programs, and one for the much smaller Disability Insurance (DI) program (although experts generally consider the two funds together due to the interrelated nature of Social Security’s programs). Individually, the Old Age and Survivors Insurance (OASI) trust fund is projected to deplete its reserves in 2035, and the DI trust fund will do so in 2016. After 2033, the Trustees project that Social Security income from payroll taxes will be sufficient to cover 77 percent of promised benefits after 2033, unless policymakers implement changes before then.

2. Social Security’s shortfall is modest. The Trustees project that the entire Social Security shortfall for the next 75 years will be about 1 percent of GDP, or 2.88 percent of taxable payroll. The bulk of this shortfall, 2.55 percent of payroll or 88.5 percent of the entire shortfall, is attributed to OASI. The Trustees have long projected both the OASI and DI shortfalls. While an aging population is frequently discussed as the driving factor, recent analysis by Monique Morrissey at the Economic Policy Institute finds that as much as half of the shortfall is attributable to rising inequality and wage growth that has lagged behind gains in productivity.

3. The fact that action will soon be needed to address Disability Insurance’s finances has long been expected. As with last year’s report, this year the Trustees continue to project that the DI trust fund will be exhausted in 2016—something that has been expected for nearly 20 years.

4. A routine step would ensure that Social Security can pay all benefits in full through 2033. Rebalancing—an adjustment in the share of payroll taxes allocated to each of the trust funds—has occurred in a bipartisan manner 11 times in the program’s history to account for demographic shifts or other changes. About half the time funds have been reallocated toward OASI, and about half the time toward DI.

BOTTOM LINE: The trustees for Social Security and Medicare brought the good news that Medicare’s financial health is better than expected. And the predictions it makes for Social Security are both expected and manageable–permitting our elected officials can take action to strengthen this program that is a bedrock of economic security for working Americans.

a Letter From Virginia ~~ Free Before Emancipation ~~ July/August edition

Letter From Virginia
Excavations are providing a new look at some of the Civil War’s earliest fugitive slaves—considered war goods or contraband—and their first taste of liberty

 click on the graphic below to get the complete story, it’s six pages of American History

(Library of Congress)

Following an 1861 decision by a Union general, escaped slaves were declared contraband, or illegal war goods, and freed. Thousands of fugitive slaves, including this group in Pamunkey Run, Virginia, provided the Union army with labor and established independent communities.

Nine Justices, Nine + Million Lives


The Fate of Millions of Americans’ Healthcare Rests in the Hands of Nine Supreme Court Justices … a repost

Oral arguments start tomorrow for King v. Burwell, the Supreme Court case that threatens to strip subsidies away from millions of Americans in more than three dozen states. There is no legal basis for taking healthcare away from millions of Americans, and through this case—the latest chapter in a years-long partisan campaign—the GOP is trying to use the Court (again) to do what they have been unable to do in Congress or at the ballot box: repeal the Affordable Care Act.

Below are some of the most recent comments from lawyers who have studied the law and journalists who have reported on it since the beginning that illustrate just how high the stakes are for this case:

Larry Tribe in The Boston Globe: “Finding for the challengers would require taking a few words in the ACA out of their proper context, ignoring the law’s structure and purpose, and even jettisoning the conservative justices’ own pro-states’ rights views.”

Jeffrey Toobin in the New Yorker:”[The Justices’] decision in the mean-spirited lawsuit that is King v. Burwell will reflect little on the interpretive schools to which they belong. The Court will have many more chances to define the Constitution for the ages. In this case, though, the Justices’ choice is a simple one: life or death.”

Steven Brill in Reuters: “If a majority of supposedly objective justices decide to ignore the facts and buy [the plaintiffs’] argument, they will have engaged in a breathtaking act of political activism. For those of us who have always regarded our highest court as a national monument to the rule of law, it will be profoundly depressing.”

Pittsburgh Post-Gazette Editorial Board: “It would be an American tragedy if the court decides to use seven little words to take away a benefit that already is helping millions of working families.”

New York Times Editorial Board: “Whatever legal games the challengers play, this case has never been more than a ginned-up, baseless attack on one of the most important pieces of social legislation of the last generation. The health of millions of Americans hangs in the balance.”

The stakes of this case are incredibly high: millions of Americans could lose their health insurance and close to 10,000 people a year could die.

Here’s what you can do. Tomorrow morning, hundreds of supporters of the Affordable Care Act will rally outside the Supreme Court. If you live in the Washington area, RSVP here to join them in person. If you live farther away, join them with your support for the Affordable Care Act online using the hashtag #DontTakeMyCare.

BOTTOM LINE: Because of a small group of ideological conservatives, the fate of millions of Americans’ healthcare rests in the hands of nine justices. Those justices have the choice to either act as a political arm of the Republican Party or to put patients over politics and uphold the law. Tomorrow is an important chance to tell them to make the right choice.

Orcas … a repost

orca whales facing high levels of pollution and endangerment

A brutal combination of pollution, global warming, declining prey and heavy boat traffic is sending the Puget Sound orca population to new lows ~ 2006

SEEING KILLER WHALES ply the waters of Washington State’s Puget Sound has long been a great thrill for Seattle-area residents. No other U.S. urban community can boast of resident orcas a few miles from downtown. Whale watching there is a multi-million-dollar tourist draw. As one orca expert puts it, “Everybody wants a kiss from a killer whale.”

But the thrill may soon be gone.

Three orca pods living in Puget Sound from May through October, known as the southern resident killer whale population, were declared federally endangered late last year by the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), the federal agency responsible for protecting marine species. Scientists believe the decline of wild chinook salmon–a major orca food source–as well as global warming, toxic pollution and vessel noise could eliminate this orca population, which ranges beyond Puget Sound into the San Juan Islands and Georgia Strait. “They are teetering,” says Ken Balcomb, senior scientist at the Center for Whale Research in Friday Harbor, Washington. It is “highly likely,” Balcomb adds, that this population of killer whales will be extinct within 100 years if conditions do not improve for both whales and salmon.

“The Puget Sound is our backyard,” adds James Schroeder, an NWF senior environmental policy specialist. “If it’s unhealthy for killer whales because the water is polluted, the sediments are laced with toxins and the food web has collapsed, it’s ultimately uninhabitable for humans.”

The largest members of the dolphin family, orcas weigh about 400 pounds at birth. Adults can measure more than 25 feet long, weigh more than 8 tons and sport a 6-foot dorsal fin. Females can live into their eighties.

Orcas are found in every ocean and, next to humans, are the most widely distributed mammal in the world. Two distinct types of killer whales travel the seas–transients and residents–which are distinguished by differences in genetics, language and food preference. They do not interbreed or even mingle. Transients live in small pods of three to seven and often travel far out to sea, subsisting on marine mammals such as seals, sea lions, dolphins and whales. Residents live closer to shore in pods of 10 to 20, are known for their jumping and splashing and eat only fish, which they sometimes stun with tail slaps. Transients rarely jump or splash and even use sonar less often, behaviors probably designed to avoid alerting the marine mammals they hunt.

Orcas on the Edge - Magazine Layout - Orcas Jumping

Individual orcas can be identified by distinct gray swaths on their backs and flanks near their dorsal fins, called saddle patches. Using these patches, biologists have named each of Puget Sound’s approximately 87 killer whales, which are part of a population that has been carefully studied since 1970, making them some of the best-known orcas in the world. All indications are that the southern resident population and the nearby British Columbia, or northern, resident orcas live primarily on chinook salmon, which are preferred probably because they are the largest salmon, have the highest fat content and are available year-round.

When West Coast wild chinook stocks plummeted in the mid-1990s, the southern resident orca population dropped from 99 in 1995 to about 80 in 2001. The northern resident population went from 219 to 202 during roughly the same time period. “Mortality in some years was 300 percent greater than we expected,” says John K.B. Ford of Fisheries and Oceans Canada–Canada’s lead federal manager of oceans and inland waters–who has studied killer whales for 30 years.

West Coast waters once were rich with wild salmon. The Columbia and Snake Rivers alone produced between 10 million and 16 million salmon yearly, the majority of them chinook. Overfishing in the late 1800s and early 1900s, followed by decades of dam building, logging and other salmon-habitat destruction have reduced wild salmon to a fraction of their original abundance. Today, Columbia and Snake River wild fish runs number only in the tens of thousands. “Perhaps the single greatest change in food availability for resident killer whales since the late 1800s has been the decline of salmon in the Columbia River basin,” according to the NMFS draft orca recovery plan. Even British Columbia’s resident killer whales, declared threatened by Canada in 2001, feed on Columbia and Snake River salmon. “In order to save our orcas, we need to save the salmon runs that sustain them,” Schroeder says.

Beleaguered salmon populations are now further jeopardized by a new challenge, global warming, which is heating some rivers and streams to temperatures lethal to fish. The average temperature of British Columbia’s Fraser River, for example, increased about 1.8 degrees F from 1953 to 1998, yielding a 50-percent mortality rate among the river’s sockeye salmon. “The higher river temperatures are largely due to global warming, as opposed to dams and other significant human-caused problems,” says Patty Glick, an NWF global warming specialist. The Canadian Ministry of Environment agrees. Citing the fact that the climate is warming, the ministry declared in a 2002 report that logging, agriculture and industrial factors have small impact on river temperature “in comparison to the impact of climate change.”

Warming oceans pose another problem–they produce less food for salmon and other fish. Oceans also absorb carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas produced by burning coal and other fossil fuels. This absorption changes the acidity of seawater, which could have catastrophic consequences for marine life. In addition, global warming is expected to alter the timing and amount of precipitation that keeps water flowing in the rivers and streams where salmon spawn. As rain and snowfall patterns change, chinook runs that now occur throughout the year could be confined to just a few of the wetter months–leaving Puget Sound orcas without salmon for long periods of time.

Salmon scarcity actually hits orcas with a one-two punch. The decline in food is a problem on the one hand, while the toxicity of the fish is a problem on the other. Puget Sound is steeped in toxics from pulp and paper mills, oil refineries, ports, boatyards and storm-water runoff. Salmon and other fish store in their bodies toxic pollutants they absorb from this environment. As a result of eating these contaminated fish, Puget Sound killer whales have some of the highest concentrations of highly carcinogenic polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) of any marine mammal in the world, says Gary Wiles, a wildlife biologist with the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife. They also have high levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers, which are toxic fire retardants.

As salmon numbers dwindle, killer whales burn blubber to survive, transferring toxics from blubber to vital organs. “When orcas metabolize fat that’s 1,000 parts per million PCBs, it’s phenomenally toxic,” Balcomb says. “Even trace amounts of PCBs disrupt the orcas’ endocrine systems, adversely affecting reproduction and their immune systems. We have seen whales become emaciated and disappear. And lots of reproduction-age females are not reproducing.”

Noise from the thousands of aquatic vessels cruising orca range may compound the food scarcity problem. Puget Sound is teeming with ferries, naval flotillas, whale-watching boats and other noisy craft that interfere with sonar, the clicking sounds orcas use like radar to find salmon. “There’s probably a lot of synergistic interactions between these stressors,” Ford says. “When there are fewer salmon, the whales have to work harder to find food. More noise may make it harder to find those fewer fish. The increased nutritional stress may lead to immuno-suppression and make the orcas more susceptible to disease.”

Orcas on the Edge - Magazine Layout - Killer Whale Pod

Saving Puget Sound orcas will require cleaning up toxic waste sites, stemming storm-water pollution and stopping global warming. The most critical step, however, is restoring salmon runs so orcas have enough to eat. “The Snake River basin once produced more than a third of all the chinook in the Columbia River basin,” Schroeder says. “If the federal government would take out the four outdated lower Snake River dams, it would go a long way toward recovering endangered Columbia River salmon and Puget Sound killer whales.”

A measure the government actually is taking also is likely to help the orcas. NMFS in June proposed new restrictions on development in about 2,500 square miles of inland waters, from Olympia, Washington, north to the Canadian border. The proposal, which covers almost all of Puget Sound, could be final as early as November, requiring any projects using federal funds or conducted under federal permits to include orca protections.

In the end, orca conservation is about a lot more than saving the Puget Sound’s magnificent killer whales. “We ignore this looming environmental problem at our own peril,” Balcomb says. “The orcas are the ultimate indicator of the health of the marine ecosystem. And that ecosystem is two-thirds of our planet.”

Washington journalist Ken Olsen wrote about farmers restoring sage grouse habitat in the April/May issue.

Killer: It’s a Name, Not an Accusation
In recent years, the killer whale has been more commonly called “orca” to avoid the negative connotations of “killer” and perhaps to avoid calling this dolphin species a whale. Nevertheless, most biologists still treat “killer whale” as the accepted common name. It is derived from the name Basque whalers gave the species: ballena asesina–“whale killer”–an appropriate moniker for a predator that hunts and eats whales. The scientific name is Orcinus orca, derived from the Latin word for “vat,” apparently a reference to the animal’s barrel-shaped body.

NWF at Work: Saving Puget Sound Wildlife
Through partnerships with various government agencies, Indian tribes, industries and other conservation organizations, NWF’s Western Natural Resource Center in Seattle is focusing on the protection and recovery of threatened and endangered species in the Puget Sound area, including Pacific salmon and orcas; toxic pollution; habitat fragmentation; global warming and other issues. NWF nationally is working with U.S. policymakers and engaging concerned citizens such as hunters, anglers and bird-watchers to advance regional and national strategies to reduce global warming pollution and to help wildlife survive a rapidly changing environment. For more information on NWF’s efforts to restore the health of Puget Sound, go to What We Do.

    Meeting global air quality guidelines could prevent 2. 1 million deaths per year


Environmental Chemistry USD  from echemusd.blogspot.com 2010