1492 – King Henry VII of England invaded France.
1780 – British army major John Andre was hanged as a spy. He was carrying information about the actions of Benedict Arnold.
1835 – The first battle of the Texas Revolution took place near the Guadalupe River when American settlers defeated a Mexican cavalry unit.
1836 – Charles Darwin returned to England after 5 years of acquiring knowledge around the world about fauna, flora, wildlife and geology. He used the information to develop his “theory of evolution” which he unveiled in his 1859 book entitled The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection.
1869 – Mahatma (Mohandas) K Gandhi was born. He was known for his advocacy of non-violent resistance to fight tyranny.
1870 – Rome was made the capital of Italy.
1876 – The Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas opened. It was the state’s first venture into public higher education. The school was formally dedicated 2 days later by Texas Gov. Richard Coke.
1889 – The first international Conference of American States began in Washington, DC.
1908 – Addie Joss of Cleveland pitched the fourth perfect game in major league baseball history.
1919 – U.S. President Woodrow Wilson suffered a stroke that left him partially paralyzed.
1920 – The Cincinnati Reds and the Pittsburgh Pirates played the only triple-header in baseball history. The Reds won 2 of the 3 games.
1924 – The Geneva Protocol adopted the League of Nations.
1925 – Scottish inventor John Logie Baird completed the first transmission of moving images.
1929 – “The National Farm and Home Hour” debuted on NBC radio.
1933 – “Red Adams” debuted on NBC radio.
1937 – Warner Bros. released “Love Is on the Air.” Ronald Reagan made his acting debut in the motion picture. He was 26 years old.
1941 – Operation Typhoon was launched by Nazi Germany. The plan was an all-out offensive against Moscow.
1944 – The Nazis crushed the Warsaw Uprising.
1947 – The Federatino Internationale de l’Automobile (FIA) formally established Formula One racing in Grand Prix competition.
1948 – The first automobile race to use asphalt, cement and dirt roads took place in Watkins Glen in New York. It was the first road race in the U.S. following World War II.
1949 – “The Aldrich Family” debuted on NBC-TV.
1950 – “Peanuts,” the comic strip created by Charles M. Schulz, was published for the first time in seven newspapers.
1955 – “Alfred Hitchcock Presents” debuted on CBS-TV.
1958 – Guinea, the French colony in West Africa, proclaimed its independence. Sekou Toure was the first president of the Republic of Guinea.
1959 – “The Twilight Zone” debuted on CBS-TV. The show ran for 5 years for a total of 154 episodes.
1962 – U.S. ports were closed to nations that allowed their ships to carry arms to Cuba, ships that had docked in a socialist country were prohibited from docking in the United States during that voyage, and the transport of U.S. goods was banned on ships owned by companies that traded with Cuba.
1967 – Thurgood Marshall was sworn in. He was the first African-American member of the U.S. Supreme Court.
1988 – Pakistan’s Supreme Court ordered free elections.
1989 – In Leipzig, East Germany a protest took place demanding the legalization of opposition groups and the adoption of democratic reforms.
1990 – The Allies ceded their rights to areas they occupied in Germany.
1993 – Opponents of Russian President Boris Yeltsin fought police and set up burning barricades.
1998 – Hawaii sued petroleum companies, claiming state drivers were overcharged by about $73 million a year in price-fixing.
1998 – About 10,000 Turkish soldiers crossed into northern Iraq and attacked Kurdish rebels.
2001 – The U.S. Postmaster unveiled the “Tribute to America” stamp. The stamp was planned for release the next month.
2001 – NATO, for the first time, invoked a treaty clause that stated that an attack on one member is an attack on all members. The act was in response to the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks in the United States.