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In 1974 Grasso campaigned successfully for the Democratic nomination for governor and in November decisively defeated her Republican opponent.
With her inauguration in January 1975 she became the first woman to serve as governor of Connecticut and the first woman to hold a state governorship solely on her own merits (all previous women governors had been wives of former governors).
In September 1978 Grasso fought off a primary challenge by her lieutenant governor and was nominated for a second term. She was reelected by a large majority in November and began a second four-year term, but she resigned on New Year’s Eve in 1980 because of illness. She was described as a symbolic rather than doctrinaire feminist leader; she opposed legalized abortion, did not actively support affirmative action, and supported the proposed Equal Rights Amendment but did not campaign for it. She was a popular politician who, in 28 years as a public figure, never lost an election.