– Formal ratification of the Articles of Confederation was announced by Congress


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Articles of Confederation

On March 1, 1781, the Articles of Confederation are finally ratified. The Articles were signed by Congress and sent to the individual states for ratification on November 15, 1777, after 16 months of debate. Bickering over land claims between Virginia and Maryland delayed final ratification for almost four more years. Maryland finally approved the Articles on March 1, 1781, affirming the Articles as the outline of the official government of the United States. The nation was guided by the Articles of Confederation until the implementation of the current U.S. Constitution in 1789.
The critical distinction between the Articles of Confederation and the U.S. Constitution —the primacy of the states under the Articles—is best understood by comparing the following lines.

The Articles of Confederation begin:
“To all to whom these Present shall come, we the undersigned Delegates of the States”
By contrast, the Constitution begins:
“We the People of the United Statesdo ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.”
The predominance of the states under the Articles of Confederation is made even more explicit by the claims of Article II:
“Each state retains its sovereignty, freedom, and independence, and every power, jurisdiction, and right, which is not by this Confederation expressly delegated to the United States, in Congress assembled.”

Less than five years after the ratification of the Articles of Confederation, enough leading Americans decided that the system was inadequate to the task of governance that they peacefully overthrew their second government in just over 20 years. The difference between a collection of sovereign states forming a confederation and a federal government created by a sovereign people lay at the heart of debate as the new American people decided what form their government would take.

Between 1776 and 1787, Americans went from living under a sovereign king, to living in sovereign states, to becoming a sovereign people. That transformation defined the American Revolution.

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Article Title
The Articles of Confederation are ratified after nearly four years
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History.com Editors
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HISTORY
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https://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/articles-of-confederation-are-ratified

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1937 – U.S. Steel raised workers’ wages to $5 a day.


FDR’s secretary of labor, social reformer Frances Perkins, argued that the steel industry’s low wages and ban against unions were undemocratic and threatened the nation’s stability. All of the major steel companies had company unions, such as Bethlehem’s Employee Representation Plan, whose representatives could not negotiate on wages or strike. There had to be a balance of power between employers and workers, she said, and to reach it, workers must have the right to organize their own unions and bargain collectively with management.

But SWOC won a surprise victory in 1937 when U.S. Steel, the world’s largest corporation, signed a contract. The pact met a union demand for 621/2 cents an hour, or $5 a day, and a 40-hour work week with time-and-a-half for overtime. Bethlehem balked at following suit and formed a bloc called ”Little Steel” with four other holdouts — Republic, National, Youngstown Sheet & Tube, and Inland Steel.

for the complete story … mcall.com/all-bethsteel-5p11-story.html

1974 – Seven people were indicted in connection with the Watergate break-in. The charge was conspiring to obstruct justice.


Editorial cartoon from the Washington Post by ‘Herblock,’ July 14, 1974.March 1, 1974: Seven Indicted for Watergate Crimes; Nixon an ‘Unindicted Co-Conspirator’
The Watergate grand jury indicts seven Nixon officials and aides for a variety of crimes committed as a part of the Watergate conspiracy, including perjury and conspiring to pay “hush money” to the convicted Watergate burglars. The indicted White House officials are former top Nixon aides John Ehrlichman, H. R. Haldeman, and Charles Colson; former assistant attorney general Robert Mardian; and Haldeman’s former assistant Gordon Strachan. The former Nixon campaign officials are former campaign chairman John Mitchell and former campaign lawyer Kenneth Parkinson. The charges against Colson will be dropped after he pleads guilty to obstruction of justice in the Ellsberg case (see March 7, 1974). [Bernstein and Woodward, 1974, pp. 335; O.T. Jacobson, 7/5/1974 ; Reeves, 2001, pp. 607; Gerald R. Ford Library and Museum, 7/3/2007] President Nixon is labeled an “unindicted co-conspirator” by the grand jury, on a 19-0 vote. [Time, 6/17/1974]
Entity Tags: Nixon administration, H.R. Haldeman, Gordon Strachan, Charles Colson, John Ehrlichman, Kenneth Parkinson, Robert Mardian, Richard M. Nixon, John Mitchell
Timeline Tags: Nixon and Watergate

March 1, 1974: Seven Indicted for Watergate Crimes; Nixon an ‘Unindicted Co-Conspirator’