1788 – The U.S. Constitution went into effect when New Hampshire became the ninth state to ratify it.


 

 

 

On June 21, 1788, the Constitution became the official framework of the government of the United States of America when New Hampshire became the ninth of 13 states to ratify it. The journey to ratification, however, was a long and arduous process.

Until the new Constitution was ratified, the country was governed by the Articles of Confederation. That document was tailored to a newly formed nation made of states acting more like independent, sovereign countries, and it quickly became clear to America’s leaders that future stability required a stronger, more centralized government. New York’s Alexander Hamilton thus led the call for a constitutional convention to reevaluate the nation’s governing document. The Confederation Congress endorsed his initiative, and representatives from all 13 states were subsequently invited to convene in Philadelphia on May 25, 1787, to participate in the Convention.

The initial purpose of the Convention was for the delegates to amend the Articles of Confederation; however, the ultimate outcome was the proposal and creation of a completely new form of government. Three months later, on September 17, 1787, the Convention concluded with the signing (by 38 out of 41 delegates present) of the new U.S. Constitution. Under Article VII, it was agreed that the document would not be binding until its ratification by nine of the 13 existing states.

Hamilton and James Madison led the lobbying efforts for votes in favor of ratifying the Constitution. With assistance from John Jay, they produced the 85 essays known as “The Federalist Papers” that explained and defended how the proposed new government would function. The essays were published in newspapers nationwide and were pivotal to securing ratification.

The first state to ratify the Constitution was Delaware on December 7, 1787, followed by Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Georgia, and Connecticut. Some states voiced opposition to the Constitution on the grounds that it did not provide protection for rights such as freedom of speech, religion, and press. However, the terms of the Massachusetts Compromise reached in February 1788 stipulated that amendments to that effect—what became the Bill of Rights—would be immediately proposed. The constitution was subsequently ratified by Massachusetts, Maryland, South Carolina, and, finally, New Hampshire.

After ratification, Congress set dates for the first federal elections and the official implementation of the Constitution. Elections were set to take place from Monday, December 15, 1788, to Saturday, January 10, 1789, and the new government was set to begin on March 4, 1789.

In the nation’s first presidential election, George Washington was elected President and John Adams was elected Vice President. Congress was also restructured to reflect the system of representation created by the Connecticut Compromise at the Constitutional Convention.

The Constitution, however, was still evolving. Madison introduced 19 amendments to the Constitution born from the Massachusetts Compromise, of which Congress adopted twelve on September 25, 1789, to send forth to the states for ratification. Ten of those amendments, known as the Bill of Rights, were ratified on December 15, 1791.

Even after the Constitution’s ratification, the U.S. did not begin to look and function remotely like it does today until several years later. The Constitution was not ratified by all states until May 29, 1790, when Rhode Island finally approved the document, and the Bill of Rights was not ratified to become part of the Constitution until the end of the following year. Moreover, the capital was not set until July 16, 1790, almost a year and half after the general elections took place.

The location of the capital was born, like most decisions in the formation of the budding nation, out of negotiation. Hamilton, now Secretary of the Treasury, sought passage of the Funding Act so that the federal government could assume state Revolutionary War debts and thus endow the government with more economic power. Meanwhile, Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson wanted to pass the Residence Act, which would set the location of the nation’s capital along the Potomac River and give the South increased political power to check the North’s growing economic power by placing the capital in a location friendly to Southern economic interests.

The two men struck a deal: Jefferson would persuade Madison, a man with significant influence in the House, to back Hamilton’s Funding Act, thereby garnering him the votes it would need to pass. In return, Hamilton would help Jefferson and Madison secure the votes needed to pass the Residence Act. The capital’s precise geographic location was left to President Washington, and on January 24, 1791—almost three years after the Constitution was first ratified—land was designated for construction.

Resource: constitutioncenter.org

Mike Pompeo/teamtrump said Life begins at conception, with no exceptions


demsVrepub

This is a man is now part of the #trumpteam The question is will he force women back to the days of hangers and wires ? The guy is in our White House  … the People’s House

Reproductive Rights

  • Life begins at conception, with no exceptions. (Nov 2010)
  • believes in torture
  • Trump CIA Pick Mike Pompeo Depicated War on Terror as Islamic Battle Against Christianity,” The Intercept, Nov 23, 2016.
    https://theintercept.com/2016/11/23/mike-pompeo-religious-war/
  • Voted YES on banning federal health coverage that includes abortion. (May 2011)
  • Didn’t disclose his dealings with China
  • Prohibit federal funding for abortion. (May 2011)
  • Prohibiting forced abortions by UN Population Fund. (May 2011)
  • Sponsored prohibiting abortion information at school health centers. (Mar 2013)
  • Life and human rights begin at fertilization or cloning. (Jan 2013)
  • No family planning assistance that includes abortion. (Jan 2013)
  • Include pre-born human beings in 14th Amendment protection. (Feb 2015)

Environment

  • Stop considering manure as pollutant or hazardous. (Sep 2011)
  • No EPA expansion of regulated waters. (Jul 2014)
  • Voted YES on opening Outer Continental Shelf to oil drilling. (May 2011)
  • Voted YES on barring EPA from regulating greenhouse gases. (Apr 2011)
  • Signed the No Climate Tax Pledge by AFP. (Nov 2010)
  • Member of House Committee on Energy and Commerce. (Mar 2011)
  • No EPA regulation of greenhouse gases. (Jan 2011)
  • Let states lease energy rights on federal lands. (Jun 2013)
  • Let wind energy production tax credit expire. (Aug 2014)

Budget

  • Voted YES on terminating the Home Affordable mortgage Program. (Mar 2011)

Civil Rights

  • Voted NO on reauthorizing the Violence Against Women Act. (Feb 2013)
  • Protect anti-same-sex marriage opinions as free speech. (Oct 2013)
  • State definition of marriage supersedes federal gay marriage. (Jan 2014)
  • Voted YES on maintaining work requirement for welfare recipients. (Mar 2013)

Corporations

  • Voted YES on workforce training by state block grants & industry partners. (Mar 2013)
  • Repeal ObamaCare reporting requirements for small business. (Jan 2011)
  • Rated 0% by UFCW, indicating a pro-management voting record. (May 2012

Social Health Issues

  • Supports privatizing Social Security. (Nov 2010)
  • Denounce the Common Core State Standards. (Feb 2014)
  • Rated 0% by ARA, indicating a pro-privatization stance. (Jan 2013)
  • Secure our borders; stop rewarding lawbreakers. (Nov 2010)
  • Opposes a pathway to citizenship. (Nov 2010)
  • Stop releasing low-risk illegal immigrants. (Mar 2013)
  • Voted YES on the Ryan Budget: Medicare choice, tax & spending cuts. (Apr 2011)
  • Voted YES on repealing the “Prevention and Public Health” slush fund. (Apr 2011)
  • Repeal any federal health care takeover. (Jul 2010)
  • Opposes public option for health insurance. (Nov 2010)
  • Repeal the Job-Killing Health Care Law. (Jan 2011)
  • Remove all funding from the 2010 national healthcare law. (Jan 2011)

Govt and Foreign Policy

  • No recess appointments without Congressional approval.
  • Withhold UN funding until voluntary and program-specific. (Aug 2011)
  • Rated -5 by AAI, indicating a anti-Arab anti-Palestine voting record. (May 2012)
  • Oppose Arms Treaty that limits gun trade to Israel & Taiwan. (Nov 2012)

 

resource: ontheissues.org , theintercept.com