1788 – The U.S. Constitution went into effect when New Hampshire became the ninth state to ratify it.


 

 

 

On June 21, 1788, the Constitution became the official framework of the government of the United States of America when New Hampshire became the ninth of 13 states to ratify it. The journey to ratification, however, was a long and arduous process.

Until the new Constitution was ratified, the country was governed by the Articles of Confederation. That document was tailored to a newly formed nation made of states acting more like independent, sovereign countries, and it quickly became clear to America’s leaders that future stability required a stronger, more centralized government. New York’s Alexander Hamilton thus led the call for a constitutional convention to reevaluate the nation’s governing document. The Confederation Congress endorsed his initiative, and representatives from all 13 states were subsequently invited to convene in Philadelphia on May 25, 1787, to participate in the Convention.

The initial purpose of the Convention was for the delegates to amend the Articles of Confederation; however, the ultimate outcome was the proposal and creation of a completely new form of government. Three months later, on September 17, 1787, the Convention concluded with the signing (by 38 out of 41 delegates present) of the new U.S. Constitution. Under Article VII, it was agreed that the document would not be binding until its ratification by nine of the 13 existing states.

Hamilton and James Madison led the lobbying efforts for votes in favor of ratifying the Constitution. With assistance from John Jay, they produced the 85 essays known as “The Federalist Papers” that explained and defended how the proposed new government would function. The essays were published in newspapers nationwide and were pivotal to securing ratification.

The first state to ratify the Constitution was Delaware on December 7, 1787, followed by Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Georgia, and Connecticut. Some states voiced opposition to the Constitution on the grounds that it did not provide protection for rights such as freedom of speech, religion, and press. However, the terms of the Massachusetts Compromise reached in February 1788 stipulated that amendments to that effect—what became the Bill of Rights—would be immediately proposed. The constitution was subsequently ratified by Massachusetts, Maryland, South Carolina, and, finally, New Hampshire.

After ratification, Congress set dates for the first federal elections and the official implementation of the Constitution. Elections were set to take place from Monday, December 15, 1788, to Saturday, January 10, 1789, and the new government was set to begin on March 4, 1789.

In the nation’s first presidential election, George Washington was elected President and John Adams was elected Vice President. Congress was also restructured to reflect the system of representation created by the Connecticut Compromise at the Constitutional Convention.

The Constitution, however, was still evolving. Madison introduced 19 amendments to the Constitution born from the Massachusetts Compromise, of which Congress adopted twelve on September 25, 1789, to send forth to the states for ratification. Ten of those amendments, known as the Bill of Rights, were ratified on December 15, 1791.

Even after the Constitution’s ratification, the U.S. did not begin to look and function remotely like it does today until several years later. The Constitution was not ratified by all states until May 29, 1790, when Rhode Island finally approved the document, and the Bill of Rights was not ratified to become part of the Constitution until the end of the following year. Moreover, the capital was not set until July 16, 1790, almost a year and half after the general elections took place.

The location of the capital was born, like most decisions in the formation of the budding nation, out of negotiation. Hamilton, now Secretary of the Treasury, sought passage of the Funding Act so that the federal government could assume state Revolutionary War debts and thus endow the government with more economic power. Meanwhile, Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson wanted to pass the Residence Act, which would set the location of the nation’s capital along the Potomac River and give the South increased political power to check the North’s growing economic power by placing the capital in a location friendly to Southern economic interests.

The two men struck a deal: Jefferson would persuade Madison, a man with significant influence in the House, to back Hamilton’s Funding Act, thereby garnering him the votes it would need to pass. In return, Hamilton would help Jefferson and Madison secure the votes needed to pass the Residence Act. The capital’s precise geographic location was left to President Washington, and on January 24, 1791—almost three years after the Constitution was first ratified—land was designated for construction.

Resource: constitutioncenter.org

Who is william barr ? trump AG nominee


So, some  FACTS

William Barr: During his confirmation hearings, Barr told the Senate he thought Roe v. Wade, the landmark Supreme Court decision legalizing abortion, should be overturned

William Barr has been critical of Mueller’s team of prosecutors, questioning their political leanings. “I would have liked to see him have more balance on this group,” AND Barr would have the authority to fire Mueller

In 2001, William Barr said he’d urged Bush to pardon a number of key figures involved in the Iran-Contra scandal, including former Defense Secretary Caspar W. Weinberger

In a separate op-ed, William Barr expressed approval of trump’s firing of Acting AG Sally Yates after she refused to enforce the president’s travel ban that targeted predominantly Muslim countries

In 2017 william barr also said he believed Clinton should be investigated on certain matters, echoing similar, controversial calls from Trump

In 2017 Barr told NYT there was more basis for investigating a uranium deal between the US&Russia from when Hillary Clinton was Sec of State than allegations the Trump campaign colluded with the Kremlin’s 2016 election interference

As attorney general, William Barr took a hardline stance on crime, issuing a series of measures aimed at addressing “gangs, drugs, and guns.”

  • bad for people of colour?
  • bad for Women

 

 

 

resource: BusinessInsider

Mike Pompeo/teamtrump said Life begins at conception, with no exceptions


demsVrepub

This is a man is now part of the #trumpteam The question is will he force women back to the days of hangers and wires ? The guy is in our White House  … the People’s House

Reproductive Rights

  • Life begins at conception, with no exceptions. (Nov 2010)
  • believes in torture
  • Trump CIA Pick Mike Pompeo Depicated War on Terror as Islamic Battle Against Christianity,” The Intercept, Nov 23, 2016.
    https://theintercept.com/2016/11/23/mike-pompeo-religious-war/
  • Voted YES on banning federal health coverage that includes abortion. (May 2011)
  • Didn’t disclose his dealings with China
  • Prohibit federal funding for abortion. (May 2011)
  • Prohibiting forced abortions by UN Population Fund. (May 2011)
  • Sponsored prohibiting abortion information at school health centers. (Mar 2013)
  • Life and human rights begin at fertilization or cloning. (Jan 2013)
  • No family planning assistance that includes abortion. (Jan 2013)
  • Include pre-born human beings in 14th Amendment protection. (Feb 2015)

Environment

  • Stop considering manure as pollutant or hazardous. (Sep 2011)
  • No EPA expansion of regulated waters. (Jul 2014)
  • Voted YES on opening Outer Continental Shelf to oil drilling. (May 2011)
  • Voted YES on barring EPA from regulating greenhouse gases. (Apr 2011)
  • Signed the No Climate Tax Pledge by AFP. (Nov 2010)
  • Member of House Committee on Energy and Commerce. (Mar 2011)
  • No EPA regulation of greenhouse gases. (Jan 2011)
  • Let states lease energy rights on federal lands. (Jun 2013)
  • Let wind energy production tax credit expire. (Aug 2014)

Budget

  • Voted YES on terminating the Home Affordable mortgage Program. (Mar 2011)

Civil Rights

  • Voted NO on reauthorizing the Violence Against Women Act. (Feb 2013)
  • Protect anti-same-sex marriage opinions as free speech. (Oct 2013)
  • State definition of marriage supersedes federal gay marriage. (Jan 2014)
  • Voted YES on maintaining work requirement for welfare recipients. (Mar 2013)

Corporations

  • Voted YES on workforce training by state block grants & industry partners. (Mar 2013)
  • Repeal ObamaCare reporting requirements for small business. (Jan 2011)
  • Rated 0% by UFCW, indicating a pro-management voting record. (May 2012

Social Health Issues

  • Supports privatizing Social Security. (Nov 2010)
  • Denounce the Common Core State Standards. (Feb 2014)
  • Rated 0% by ARA, indicating a pro-privatization stance. (Jan 2013)
  • Secure our borders; stop rewarding lawbreakers. (Nov 2010)
  • Opposes a pathway to citizenship. (Nov 2010)
  • Stop releasing low-risk illegal immigrants. (Mar 2013)
  • Voted YES on the Ryan Budget: Medicare choice, tax & spending cuts. (Apr 2011)
  • Voted YES on repealing the “Prevention and Public Health” slush fund. (Apr 2011)
  • Repeal any federal health care takeover. (Jul 2010)
  • Opposes public option for health insurance. (Nov 2010)
  • Repeal the Job-Killing Health Care Law. (Jan 2011)
  • Remove all funding from the 2010 national healthcare law. (Jan 2011)

Govt and Foreign Policy

  • No recess appointments without Congressional approval.
  • Withhold UN funding until voluntary and program-specific. (Aug 2011)
  • Rated -5 by AAI, indicating a anti-Arab anti-Palestine voting record. (May 2012)
  • Oppose Arms Treaty that limits gun trade to Israel & Taiwan. (Nov 2012)

 

resource: ontheissues.org , theintercept.com

 

Signed in convention September 17, 1787. Ratified June 21, 1788. Portions of Article II, Section 1, were changed by the 12th Amendment and the 25th Amendment


 

Section 1
The executive Power shall be vested in a President of the United States of America.
He shall hold his Office during the Term of four Years, and, together with the Vice President, chosen for the same Term, be elected, as follows:
Each State shall appoint, in such Manner as the Legislature thereof may direct, a Number of Electors, equal to the whole Number of Senators and Representatives to which the State may be entitled in the Congress: but no Senator or Representative, or Person holding an Office of Trust or Profit under the United States, shall be appointed an Elector.
The Electors shall meet in their respective States, and vote by Ballot for two Persons, of whom one at least shall not be an Inhabitant of the same State with themselves. And they shall make a List of all the Persons voted for, and of the Number of Votes for each; which List they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the Seat of the Government of the United States, directed to the President of the Senate. The President of the Senate shall, in the Presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the Certificates, and the Votes shall then be counted. The Person having the greatest Number of Votes shall be the President, if such Number be a Majority of the whole Number of Electors appointed; and if there be more than one who have such Majority, and have an equal Number of Votes, then the House of Representatives shall immediately chuse by Ballot one of them for President; and if no Person have a Majority, then from the five highest on the List the said House shall in like Manner chuse the President. But in chusing the President, the Votes shall be taken by States, the Representation from each State having one Vote; A quorum for this Purpose shall consist of a Member or Members from two thirds of the States, and a Majority of all the States shall be necessary to a Choice. In every Case, after the Choice of the President, the Person having the greatest Number of Votes of the Electors shall be the Vice President. But if there should remain two or more who have equal Votes, the Senate shall chuse from them by Ballot the Vice President.
The Congress may determine the Time of chusing the Electors, and the Day on which they shall give their Votes; which Day shall be the same throughout the United States.
No Person except a natural born Citizen, or a Citizen of the United States, at the time of the Adoption of this Constitution, shall be eligible to the Office of President; neither shall any person be eligible to that Office who shall not have attained to the Age of thirty five Years, and been fourteen Years a Resident within the United States.
In Case of the Removal of the President from Office, or of his Death, Resignation, or Inability to discharge the Powers and Duties of the said Office, the Same shall devolve on the Vice President, and the Congress may by Law provide for the Case of Removal, Death, Resignation or Inability, both of the President and Vice President, declaring what Officer shall then act as President, and such Officer shall act accordingly, until the Disability be removed, or a President shall be elected.
The President shall, at stated Times, receive for his Services, a Compensation, which shall neither be increased nor diminished during the Period for which he shall have been elected, and he shall not receive within that Period any other Emolument from the United States, or any of them.
Before he enter on the Execution of his Office, he shall take the following Oath or Affirmation:–“I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the Office of President of the United States, and will to the best of my Ability, preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of the United States.”

Section 2
The President shall be Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy of the United States, and of the Militia of the several States, when called into the actual Service of the United States; he may require the Opinion, in writing, of the principal Officer in each of the executive Departments, upon any Subject relating to the Duties of their respective Offices, and he shall have Power to grant Reprieves and Pardons for Offenses against the United States, except in Cases of Impeachment.
He shall have Power, by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, to make Treaties, provided two thirds of the Senators present concur; and he shall nominate, and by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, shall appoint Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls, Judges of the supreme Court, and all other Officers of the United States, whose Appointments are not herein otherwise provided for, and which shall be established by Law: but the Congress may by Law vest the Appointment of such inferior Officers, as they think proper, in the President alone, in the Courts of Law, or in the Heads of Departments.
The President shall have Power to fill up all Vacancies that may happen during the Recess of the Senate, by granting Commissions which shall expire at the End of their next Session.

Section 3
He shall from time to time give to the Congress Information of the State of the Union, and recommend to their Consideration such Measures as he shall judge necessary and expedient; he may, on extraordinary Occasions, convene both Houses, or either of them, and in Case of Disagreement between them, with Respect to the Time of Adjournment, he may adjourn them to such Time as he shall think proper; he shall receive Ambassadors and other public Ministers; he shall take Care that the Laws be faithfully executed, and shall Commission all the Officers of the United States.

Section 4
The President, Vice President and all civil Officers of the United States, shall be removed from Office on Impeachment for, and Conviction of, Treason, Bribery, or other high Crimes and Misdemeanors.

Resource: constitutioncenter.org