on this day 10/19 1765 – In the U.S.,The Stamp Act Congress met&drew up a declaration of rights and liberties.1983 – The U.S. Senate approved a bill establishing a national holiday in honor of Martin Luther King Jr.

1765 – In the U.S., The Stamp Act Congress met and drew up a declaration of rights and liberties.

1781 – British General Charles Lord Cornwallis surrendered to U.S. General George Washington at Yorktown, Virginia. It was to be the last major battle of the American Revolutionary War.

1812 – Napoleon Bonaparte’s French forces began their retreat out of Russia after a month of chasing the retreating Russian army.

1814 – In Baltimore, MD, the first documented performance of “The Defence of Fort McHenry” with music took place at the Holliday Street Theatre. The work was later published under the title “The Star-Spangled Banner.”

1914 – In the U.S., government owned vehicles were first used to pick up mail in Washington, DC.

1915 – The U.S. recognized General Venustiano Carranza as the president of Mexico. The U.S. imposed embargo to all parts of Mexico except where Carranza was in control.

1933 – Basketball was introduced to the 1936 Olympic Games by the Berlin Organization Committee.

1943 – The Moscow Conference of Foreign Ministers began in Russia during World War II. Delegates from the U.S.S.R., Great Britain, the U.S., and China met to discuss war aims and cooperation between the nations.

1944 – The U.S. Navy announced that black women would be allowed into Women Accepted for Volunteer Emergency Service (WAVES).

1950 – The United Nations forces entered the North Korean capital of Pyongyang.

1951 – U.S. President Truman signed an act officially ending the state of war with Germany.

1960 – The United States imposed an embargo on exports to Cuba covering all commodities except medical supplies and certain food products.

1969 – U.S. Vice President Spiro Agnew referred to anti-Vietnam War protesters “an effete corps of impudent snobs.”

1977 – The Concorde made its first landing in New York City.

1983 – The U.S. Senate approved a bill establishing a national holiday in honor of Martin Luther King Jr.

1984 – Four U.S. employees of the CIA were killed in El Salvador when their plane crashed.

1987 – The Dow Jones industrial average dropped 508 points. It was the worst one-day percentage decline, 22.6%, in history.

1989 – The U.S. Senate rejected a proposed constitutional amendment that barred the desecration of the American flag.

1993 – Benazir Bhutto was returned to the premiership of Pakistan.

1998 – In Washington, DC, Microsoft went on trial to defend against an antitrust case.

2003 – In London, magician David Blaine emerged from a clear plastic box that had been suspended by a crane over the banks of the Thames River. He survived only on water for 44 days. Blaine had entered the box on September 5.

2006 – The Dow Jones industrial average ended the day at 12,011.73. It was the first close above 12,000.

2009 – The international version of Amazon’s Kindle 2 was released.

1983 – The U.S. Senate approved a bill establishing a national holiday in honor of Martin Luther King Jr

When the Senate finally voted on the bill on 19 October, the packed galleries included numerous prominent proponents of the holiday, including Coretta Scott King, SCLC President Joseph E. Lowery, and National Association for the Advancement of Colored People Executive Director Benjamin Hooks. The holiday bill was finally approved by a vote of 78–22 (37 Republicans and 41 Democrats voted in favor; 18 Republicans and 4 Democrats voted against).

for the complete article: kinginstitutestanford.edu

1765 – Nine American colonies sent a total of 28 delegates to New York City for the Stamp Act Congress. The delegates adopted the “Declaration of Rights and Grievances.”

Federal Hall in New York City where the Stamp Act Congress took place. The Stamp Act Congress met in the Federal Hall building in New York City between October 7 and 25, 1765. It was the first colonial action against a British measure and was formed to protest the Stamp Act issued by British Parliament on March 1765. The Stamp Act Congress was attended by 27 representatives of nine of the thirteen colonies. Virginia, North Carolina and Georgia were prevented from attending because their loyal governors refused to convene the assemblies to elect delegates. New Hampshire did not attend but approved the resolutions once Congress was over.

Congress approved thirteen resolutions in the Declaration of Rights and Grievances. It is important to note that colonists, at that point in time, were not intending on separation from the crown. In the first resolution, they stated their allegiance to the king and its Parliament. They declared and affirmed that they were entitled to the rights and liberties of all British subjects. Most importantly they asserted their right to “No taxation without representation” and that because of their circumstances, America was three thousand miles away, they could not be represented in the House of Commons in Britain. The only bodies legally able to impose an internal tax were their respective legislatures whose members were elected by the public.

The Stamp Act Congress declared the Stamp Act duties as extremely bothersome as the scarcity of specie made its payment impractical. Local profits would suffer from the payment of the duty ultimately affecting transatlantic trade. Congress also supported the boycott of British goods.

The colonists also wanted to reassert their right to trial by jury as an inherent right to all British subjects in the colonies and limit the jurisdiction of Admiralty Courts. These courts could try a case anywhere within the British Empire; cases were decided by judges instead than by juries. In addition, judges and naval officers were paid based on the fines they levied leading to abuses.

The colonial petition was rejected on the basis of having been submitted by an unconstitutional assembly. The Stamp Act was eventually repealed primarily based on economic concerns expressed by British merchants.

However, parliament in order to reassert its power and constitutional issues over its right to tax its colonies passed the Declaratory Act.

Colonies sent the following delegates to the Stamp Act Congress:

From Massachusetts: James Otis, Samuel Adams, Oliver Partridge and Timothy Ruggles.
From Rhode Island: Henry Ward and Metcalf Bowler
From Connecticut: William Johnson, Eliphalet Dyer and David Rowland.
From New York: Phillip Livingston, William Bayard, John Cruger, Robert Livingston and Leonard Lispinard.
From Pennsylvania: John Morton, George Bryan and John Dickinson.
From New Jersey: Hendrick Fisher, Robert Ogden and Joseph Gordon.
From Delaware: Caesar Rodney and Thomas McKean.
From Maryland: Edward Tilghman, Thomas Ringgold and William Murdock.
From South Carolina: John Rutledge, Thomas Lynch and Christopher Gadsden.
Secretary: John Cotton
President: Timothy Ruggles from Massachusetts

Resource: stamp-act-history.com

image from wiki

FDR had something to say about voting

votingFranklin D. Roosevelt once said

“Nobody will ever deprive the American people of the right to vote except the American people themselves and the only way they could do this is by not voting.”