on this day 11/05 U.S. Supreme Court decision (Buchanan v. Warley) struck down Louisville, Ky., ordinance which required Blacks and whites to live in separate residential areas.


1605 – The “Gunpowder Plot” attempted by Guy Fawkes failed when he was captured before he could blow up the English Parliament. Guy Fawkes Day is celebrated every November 5th in Britain to celebrate his failure to blow up all the members of Parliament and King James I.

1844 – In California, a grizzly bear underwent a successful cataract operation at the Zoological Garden.

1862 – Frazier A Boutelle is commissioned as second lieutenant in the Fifth New York Calvary

1867 – First Reconstruction constitutional convention (eighteen Blacks, ninety whites) opened in Montgomery, Alabama. blackfacts.com

1872 – In the U.S., Susan B. Anthony was fined $100 for attempting to vote in the presidential election. She never paid the fine.

1895 – George B. Selden received the first U.S. patent for an automobile. He sold the rights for $200,000 four years later.

1911 – Italy officially annexed Tripoli.

1917 – U.S. Supreme Court decision (Buchanan v. Warley) struck down Louisville, Ky., ordinance which required Blacks and whites to live in separate residential areas blackfacts.com

1935 – The game “Monopoly” was introduced by Parker Brothers Company.

1940 – U.S. President Franklin Roosevelt won an unprecedented third term in office.

1944 – Lord Moyne, a British official, was assassinated by the Zionist Stern gang in Cairo, Egypt.

1946 – John F. Kennedy was elected to the U.S. House of Representatives at the age of 29.

1955 – The Vienna State Opera House in Austria formally opened.

1956 – British and French forces began landing in Egypt during the Suez Canal Crisis. A cease-fire was declared 2 days later.

1959 – The American Football League was formed.

1963 – Archaeologists found the remains of a Viking settlement at L’Anse aux Meadows, Newfoundland.

1967 – In Moscow, the Ostankino Tower opened. It was the world’s tallest free-standing structure for nine years.

1968 – A record number of Black congressmen and the first Black woman representative were elected to Congress. The nine Black congressmen and Sen. Edward W. Brooke topped the previous high of eight in the Forty-fourth Congress of 1875-77. The first Black woman representative, Shirley Chisholm of the Bedford-Stuyvesant section of Brooklyn, defeated former CORE director James Farmer, in New York’s Twelfth Congressional critics and reelected Adam Clayton Powell Jr. In addition to Powell, the following incumbents were reelected: William L. Dawson (Ill.), Charles C. Diggs (Mich.), Augustus Hawkins (Cali.), Robert N.C. Nix (Pa.) and John Conyers (Mich.) Elected to Congress for the first time were Mrs. Chisholm, Louis Stokes (Ohio) and William L. Clay (Mo.) blackfacts.com

1974 – George Brown was elected Lt Governor of Colorado, becoming one of the first two Black Lt Governors in the USA blacksfact.com
1974 – Walter E. Washington, became the first elected mayor of Washington, D.C., in the twentieth century. blackfacts.com
1974 – Harold Ford of Memphis elected to House of Representatives. blackfacts.com
1974 – State Sen. Mervyn M. Dymally elected lieutenant governor of California. State Sen. Georgia L. Brown elected lieutenant governor of Colorado. blackfacts.com
1974 – Shirley Chisholm, a New York Democrat, is the 1st African American woman elected to Congress.

 

1974 – Ella T. Grasso was elected governor of Connecticut. She was the first woman in the U.S. to win a governorship without succeeding her husband.

1984 – The U.S. Supreme Court ruled that the NFL had exceeded antitrust limits in attempting to stop the Oakland Raiders from moving to Los Angeles.

1986 – The White House reaffirmed the U.S. ban on the sale of weapons to Iran. 

1987 – In South Africa, Goban Mbeki was released after serving 24 years in the Robben Island prison. He had been sentenced to life for treason against the white minority government of South Africa.

1998 – Scientists published a genetic study that showed strong evidence that Thomas Jefferson fathered at least one child (Eston Hemings) of his slave, Sally Hemings. (for more information

1990 – Rabbi Meir Kahane, founder of the Kach movement, was shot to death after a speech at a New York Hotel. His assassin, Egyptian El Sayyid, was later convicted of the murder and was sentenced to life in prison for his part in the World Trade Center bombing.

1992 – Malice Green, a black motorist, was beaten to death in Detroit during a struggle with police. Two officers were later convicted in his death and sentenced to prison. 

1994 – Former U.S. President Reagan announced that he had Alzheimer’s disease.

1994 – George Foreman, 45, became boxing’s oldest heavyweight champion when he knocked out Michael Moorer in the 10th round of their WBA fight in Las Vegas, NV.

1998 – In the U.S., Chairman Henry Hyde of the Judiciary Committee asked President Clinton to answer 81 questions for the House impeachment inquiry.

1998 – The U.N. announced that the Taliban militia had killed up to 5,000 civilians in a takeover of an Afghani town.

1999 – A 12-day conference on global warming, attended by delegates from 170 nations, ended in Bonn, Germany.

1999 – Dennis Rodman (NBA) and Carmen Electra were both arrested and charged with battery and domestic violence in a hotel in Miami Beach, FL.

1999 – U.S. District Judge Thomas Penfield Jackson ruled that Microsoft Corp. enjoyed “monopoly power”.

2001 – It was announced that European aircraft manufacturer Airbus and Dubai-based Emirates airlines set up a joint venture specializing in airline services.

2009 – At Fort Hood, near Kileen, TX, Nidal Malik Hasan killed 13 people and wounded 30 others.

The Slaves of the White House Finally Get to Have Their Stories Told


Long ignored by historians, the enslaved people of the White House are coming into focus through a new book by Jesse J. Holland

Jesse J. Holland’s book, “The Invisibles: The Untold Story of African American Slaves in the White House” offers new insight into lives of these men and women who lived in bondage in the White House. (Bettmann/CORBIS )

Please click on green links for more information

smithsonian.com
January 25, 2016

President Barack Obama might be the first black president to serve in the White House, but he certainly was not the first black person to live there. Yet the history of the original black residents of 1600 Pennsylvania Avenue has been sparsely reported on, as Associated Press reporter Jesse J. Holland discovered when he began researching his latest book, The Invisibles: The Untold Story of African American Slaves in the White House. The Invisibles—a smart sketch on the lives of these men and women in bondage—is intended to serve as a historical first take. Holland’s goal writing about the slaves who resided alongside 10 of the first 12 presidents who lived in the White House is to start a conversation on who these enslaved people were, what they were like, and what happened to them if they were able to escape from bondage.

Your first book, Black Men Built the Capitol: Discovering African-American History In and Around Washington, D.C., touches on similar themes to The Invisibles.  How did you get the idea for writing about this specific lost chapter of black history in the United States?

I was covering politics for the AP back when Obama was doing his first presidential campaign around the country. He decided that weekend to go back home to Chicago. I was on the press bus, sitting in Chicago outside of Obama’s townhouse, trying to think about what book to write next. I wanted to do a follow-up book to my first—which was published in 2007—but I was struggling to come up with a coherent idea. As I was sitting there in Chicago, covering Obama, it hit me: We had always talked about the history of Obama possibly becoming the first black president of the United States, but I knew Obama couldn’t have been the first black man to live in the White House. Washington, D.C. is a southern city and almost all mansions in the South were constructed and run by African Americans. So I said to myself, I want to know who these African American slaves were who lived in the White House.

How did you begin researching the story? 

Only one or two of the slaves who worked for the president ever had anything written—Paul Jennings wrote a memoir—but there’s very little written about these men and women enslaved by the presidents. Most of my research was done by reading between lines of presidential memoirs and piecing all of it into one coherent narrative. Presidential historians that work at Monticello and Hermitage in Tennessee, for example, want this research done; they were thrilled when someone wanted to look at these records and were able to send me a lot of materials.

What were some of the more unexpected details you can across during your research?

One of the things that surprised me is how much information was written about these slaves without calling them slaves. They were called servants, they were staff— but they were slaves. Andrew Jackson’s horse racing operation included slave jockeys. There have been things written about Andrew Jackson and horses and jockeys, but not one mentioned the word “slaves.” They were called employees in all the records. So, it’s there, once you know the words to look for. I was also surprised with how much time the presidents spent talking about their slaves in those same code words. When you start reading memoirs, ledgers, these people show up again and again and again, but they are never actually called slaves.

Which president’s relationship with his slaves surprised you the most? 

With Thomas Jefferson, there’s been so much said about him and his family, I don’t know if I discovered anything new, but everything is about context. We mostly talk about Thomas Jefferson and Sally Hemings, but James Hemings would have been the first White House chef, if not for the spat between him and Thomas Jefferson.

Or you look at [Joseph] Fossett being caught on White House grounds trying to see his wife. It surprised me because you would think things like that would be more well known. The Thomas Jefferson story is overwhelmed about him and Sally Hemmings, but there are so many stories there.

Definitely. 

Also, with everything we know about George Washington, I was shocked to find he advertised in the newspaper for a recapture of an escaped slave. I hadn’t thought any had escaped until I started working on this and then to find he’d advertised for the return, that’s not subtle. He wanted him back and he took whatever route he could take, including taking out an advertisement.

How does reading about these slaves help us better understand the early presidents? 

In the past, we’ve talked about their attitudes in general toward slaves and now we can talk in specifics, and include the names of the slaves they were dealing with. That’s one thing I hope not just historians, but people in general pick out of the abstract. Begin talking about the specifics: this is how the relationships between George Washington and William Lee or Thomas Jefferson with James Hemings or Andrew Jackson with Monkey Simon. This helps us understand presidents’ policies when it came to slavery and race relations at this time. If they said something publicly but did something else privately, it gives us insight into who they are.

Was it frustrating writing around the limited information available?

One of the things I talk about in the book is that this is just a first step. There is no telling how many stories have been lost because, as a country, we didn’t value these stories. We’re always learning more about the presidents as we go forward and we’ll also learn more about the people who cooked their meals and dressed them.

There are people doing great work on slave dwellings in the South, great work on the history of African American cooking, slave cooking in the past. It’s not the information wasn’t always here, we’re just interested in it now. As we go forward and learn more information and find these old hidden ledgers and photographs, we’ll have a clearer picture of where we came from as a country and that will help us decide where we are going in the future.

1974 – Ella T. Grasso was elected governor of Connecticut. She was the first woman in the U.S. to win a governorship without succeeding her husband.


Written By: The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica
See Article History See the source image

In 1974 Grasso campaigned successfully for the Democratic nomination for governor and in November decisively defeated her Republican opponent.

With her inauguration in January 1975 she became the first woman to serve as governor of Connecticut and the first woman to hold a state governorship solely on her own merits (all previous women governors had been wives of former governors).

In September 1978 Grasso fought off a primary challenge by her lieutenant governor and was nominated for a second term. She was reelected by a large majority in November and began a second four-year term, but she resigned on New Year’s Eve in 1980 because of illness. She was described as a symbolic rather than doctrinaire feminist leader; she opposed legalized abortion, did not actively support affirmative action, and supported the proposed Equal Rights Amendment but did not campaign for it. She was a popular politician who, in 28 years as a public figure, never lost an election.

Resources: Britannica

A-Z Quotes

on this day …. 11/05


1994
George Foreman becomes oldest heavyweight champ
On this day in 1994, George Foreman, age 45, becomes boxing’s oldest heavyweight champion when he defeats 26-year-old Michael Moorer in the 10th round of their WBA fight in Las Vegas. More than 12,000 spectators at the MGM Grand Hotel watched Foreman dethrone Moorer, who went into the fight with a… read more »
1775
Washington condemns Guy Fawkes festivities »
1895
George Selden patents gas-powered car »
1862
Lincoln removes McClellan »
1968
Richard Nixon elected president »
2009
Army major kills 13 people in Fort Hood shooting spree »
1991
Philippines struggles with severe flooding »
1556
Mughal victory assures Akbar’s ascension »
1605
King James learns of gunpowder plot »
1912
Wilson wins landslide victory »
1930
An American Nobel Prize in Literature »
1990
Jewish extremist assassinated in New York »
2007
Writers strike stalls production of TV shows, movies »
1893
Willa Cather starts writing for the Nebraska State Journal »
1938
Samuel Barber’s Adagio For Strings receives its world premiere on NBC radio »
1862
300 Santee Sioux sentenced to hang in Minnesota »
1977
George W. Bush marries Laura Welch in Midland, Texas »
1994
George Foreman becomes oldest heavyweight champ in history »
1968
Nixon wins presidential election »
1970
U.S. combat deaths down »
1914
Battle of Tanga ends in defeat for British colonial troops »
W
1940
FDR re-elected president »

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