1961 – The 23rd amendment to the U.S. Constitution was ratified. The amendment allowed residents of Washington, DC, to vote for president.


Twenty-third Amendmentamendment (1961) to the Constitution of the United States that permitted citizens of Washington, D.C., the right to choose electors in presidential elections. It was proposed by the U.S. Congress on June 16, 1960, and its ratification was certified on March 29, 1961.

Twenty-third Amendment
Twenty-third AmendmentThe Twenty-third Amendment to the Constitution of the United States, ratified in 1961. image: NARA

ful the complete article

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The full text of the Twenty-third Amendment is:

Section 1—The District constituting the seat of Government of the United States shall appoint in such manner as the Congress may direct:

A number of electors of President and Vice President equal to the whole number of Senators and Representatives in Congress to which the District would be entitled if it were a State, but in no event more than the least populous State; they shall be in addition to those appointed by the States, but they shall be considered, for the purposes of the election of President and Vice President, to be electors appointed by a State; and they shall meet in the District and perform such duties as provided by the twelfth article of amendment.

Section 2—The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

Brian P. Smentkowski