1754 – Kings College opened in New York City. It was renamed Columbia College 30 years later.
1862 – The first railroad post office was tested on the Hannibal and St. Joseph Railroad in Missouri.
1885 – G. Moore Peters patented the cartridge-loading machine.
1917 – Aleksandr Kerensky formed a provisional government in Russia.
1930 – Construction began on Boulder Dam, later Hoover Dam, on the Colorado River.
1937 – Japanese forces invaded China.
1946 – Mother Frances Xavier Cabrini was canonized as the first American saint.
1950 – The U.N. Security Council authorized military aid for South Korea.
1969 – Canada’s House of Commons gave final approval to a measure that made the French language equal to English throughout the national government.
1983 – Eleven-year-old Samantha Smith of Manchester, Maine, left for a visit to the Soviet Union at the personal invitation of Soviet leader Yuri V. Andropov.
1987 – Public testimony at the Iran-Contra hearing began.
1994 – Amazon.com, Inc. was founded in Seattle, Washington under the name “Cadabra.”
1998 – A jury in Santa Monica, CA, convicted Mikail Markhasev of murdering Ennis Cosby, Bill Cosby’s only son, during a roadside robbery.
1999 – In Sierra Leone, President Ahmad Tejan Kabbah and rebel leader Foday Sankoh signed a pact to end the nation’s civil war.
2000 – Cisco Systems Inc. announced that it would buy Netiverse Inc. for $210 million in stock. It was the 13th time Cisco had purchased a company in 2000.
2003 – In Liberia, a team of U.S. military experts arrived at the U.S. embassy compound to assess whether to deploy troops as part of a peacekeeping force in the country.