The 14th amendment – Adopted on July 9,1868


The Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution was adopted on July 9, 1868, as one of the Reconstruction Amendments.

Often considered one of the most consequential amendments, it addresses citizenship rights and equal protection under the law and was proposed in response to issues related to former slaves following the American Civil War. The amendment was bitterly contested, particularly by the states of the defeated Confederacy, which were forced to ratify it in order to regain representation in Congress.

The amendment, particularly its first section, is one of the most litigated parts of the Constitution, forming the basis for landmark Supreme Court decisions such as Brown v. Board of Education regarding racial segregation, Roe v. Wade regarding abortion, Bush v. Gore regarding the 2000 presidential election, and Obergefell v. Hodges regarding same-sex marriage. The amendment limits the actions of all state and local officials, and also those acting on behalf of such officials.

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on this day 7/9 1868 – The 14th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution was ratified.


0118 – Hadrian, Rome’s new emperor, made his entry into the city.

0455 – Avitus, the Roman military commander in Gaul, became Emperor of the West.

1540 – England’s King Henry VIII had his 6-month-old marriage to his fourth wife, Anne of Cleves, annulled.

1609 – In a letter to the crown, the emperor Rudolf II granted Bohemia freedom of worship.

1755 – General Edward Braddock was mortally wounded when French and Indian troops ambushed his force of British regulars and colonial militia. He died on July 13.

1776 – The American Declaration of Independence was read aloud to Gen. George Washington’s troops in New York.

1789 – In Versailles, the French National Assembly declared itself the Constituent Assembly and began to prepare a French constitution.

1790 – The Swedish navy captured one third of the Russian fleet at the naval battle of Svensksund in the Baltic Sea.

1792 – S.L. Mitchell of Columbia College in New York City became the first Professor of Agriculture.

1808 – The leather-splitting machine was patented by Samuel Parker.

1816 – Argentina declared independence from Spain.

1847 – A 10-hour work day was established for workers in the state of New Hampshire. 

1868 – The 14th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution was ratified. The amendment was designed to grant citizenship to and protect the civil liberties of recently freed slaves. It did this by prohibiting states from denying or abridging the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States, depriving any person of his life, liberty, or property without due process of law, or denying to any person within their jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws. 

1872 – The doughnut cutter was patented by John F. Blondel.

1877 – Alexander Graham Bell, Gardiner Greene Hubbard, Thomas Sanders and Thomas Watson formed the Bell Telephone Company.

1878 – The corncob pipe was patented by Henry Tibbe.

1900 – The Commonwealth of Australia was established by an act of the British Parliament, uniting the separate colonies under a federal government.

1922 – Johnny Weissmuller became the first person to swim the 100 meters freestyle in less than a minute.

1943 – American and British forces made an amphibious landing on Sicily.

1947 – The engagement of Britain’s Princess Elizabeth to Lt. Philip Mountbatten was announced.

1951 – U.S. President Truman asked Congress to formally end the state of war between the United States and Germany.

1953 – New York Airways began the first commuter passenger service by helicopter. 

1968 – The first All-Star baseball game to be played indoors took place at the Astrodome in Houston, TX.

1971 – The United States turned over complete responsibility of the Demilitarized Zone to South Vietnamese units.

1985 – Joe Namath signed a five-year pact with ABC-TV to provide commentary for “Monday Night Football”.

2015 – The South Carolina House of Representatives approved taking down the Confederate flag from the Capitol grounds. The flag was removed the next day and taken to a state military museum. 

On This Day ~~~ Nelson Mandela declares victory for the African National Congress


NelsonMandela

Quick Facts

Nelson Mandela was born on July 18, 1918, in Transkei, South Africa. Becoming actively involved in the anti-apartheid movement in his 20s, Mandela joined the African National Congress in 1942. For 20 years, he directed a campaign of peaceful, non-violent defiance against the South African government and its racist policies. In 1993,

Quotes

“I can rest only for a moment, for with freedom come responsibilities, and I dare not linger, for my long walk is not yet ended.”

– Nelson Mandela

“For to be free is not merely to cast off one’s chains, but to live in a way that respects and enhances the freedom of others.”

– Nelson Mandela

“If you want to make peace with your enemy, you have to work with your enemy. Then he becomes your partner.”

– Nelson Mandela

“Man’s goodness is a flame that can be hidden but never extinguished.”

– Nelson Mandela

“I was made, by the law, a criminal, not because of what I had done, but because of what I stood for, because of what I thought, because of my conscience.”

– Nelson Mandela

Mandela and South African President F.W. de Klerk were jointly awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for their efforts to dismantle the country’s apartheid system. In 1994, Mandela was inaugurated as South Africa’s first black president. In 2009, Mandela’s birthday (July 18) was declared Mandela Day to promote global peace and celebrate the South African leader’s legacy.

Early Life

Nelson Mandela was born Rolihlahla Mandela on July 18, 1918, in the tiny village of Mvezo, on the banks of the Mbashe River in Transkei, South Africa. “Rolihlahla” in the Xhosa language literally means “pulling the branch of a tree,” but more commonly translates as “troublemaker.”

For the complete article … Go To :   www.biography.com/people