History …the Month of February — a whole lot happened


 

February 1

1960 – In Greensboro, North Carolina, four African American students sat down and ordered coffee at a lunch counter inside a Woolworth’s store. They were refused service, but did not leave. Instead, they waited all day. The scene was repeated over the next few days, with protests spreading to other southern states, resulting in the eventual arrest of over 1,600 persons for participating in sit-ins.

 2003 – Sixteen minutes before it was scheduled to land, the Space Shuttle Columbia broke apart in flight over west Texas, killing all seven crew members. The accident may have resulted from damage caused during liftoff when a piece of insulating foam from the external fuel tank broke off, piercing a hole in the shuttle’s left wing that allowed hot gases to penetrate the wing upon re-entry into the Earth’s atmosphere. This was the second space shuttle lost in flight. In January 1986, Challenger exploded during liftoff.

February 2

1848 – The war between the U.S. and Mexico ended with the signing of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. In exchange for $15 million, the U.S. acquired the areas encompassing parts or all of present day California, Nevada, Utah, Arizona, New Mexico, Colorado, Wyoming, and Texas. The treaty was ratified on March 10, 1848.

1990 – In South Africa, the 30-year-old ban on the African National Congress was lifted by President F.W. de Klerk, who also promised to free Nelson Mandela and remove restrictions on political opposition groups.

1848 – The first shipload of Chinese emigrants arrived in San Francisco, CA.

1865 – A four-hour peace conference occurred between President Abraham Lincoln and Confederate Vice President Alexander Stephens at Hampton Roads, Virginia. The meeting was unsuccessful as President Lincoln insisted there could be no armistice until the Confederates acknowledged Federal authority. The Confederates wanted an armistice first. Thus the Civil Warcontinued.

 1870 – The 15th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution was ratified, guaranteeing the right of citizens to vote, regardless of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.

February 3

1783 – Spain recognized the independence of the United States.

 1913 – The 16th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution was ratified, granting Congress the authority to collect income taxes.

1947 – Percival Prattisbecame the first black news correspondent admitted to the House and Senate press gallery in Washington, DC. He worked for “Our World” in New York City.

2009 – Eric Holder was sworn in as attorney general. He was the first African-American to hold the post.

1943 – An extraordinary act of heroism occurred in the icy waters off Greenland after the U.S. Army transport ship Dorchester was hit by a German torpedo and began to sink rapidly. When it became apparent there were not enough life jackets, four U.S. Army chaplains on board removed theirs, handed them to frightened young soldiers, and chose to go down with the ship while praying.

February 4

1861 – Apache Chief Cochise was arrested in Arizona by the U.S. Army for raiding a ranch. Cochise then escaped and declared war, beginning the period known as the Apache Wars, which lasted 25 years.

1985 Twenty countries in the United Nations signed a document entitled “Convention Against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment.”

February 5 

 1917 – The new constitution of Mexico, allowing for sweeping social changes, was adopted.

February 6

 1788 – Massachusetts became the sixth state to ratify the new U.S. Constitution, by a vote of 187 to 168.

1933 – The 20th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution was adopted. It set the date for the Presidential Inauguration as January 20th, instead of the old date of March 4th. It also sets January 3rd as the official opening date of Congress.

 1952 – King George VI of England died. Upon his death, his daughter Princess Elizabeth became Queen Elizabeth II, Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. Her actual coronation took place on June 2, 1953.

February 7

1795 – The 11th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution was ratified, limiting the powers of the Federal Judiciary over the states by prohibiting Federal lawsuits against individual states

February 8

1587 – Mary Stuart, Queen of Scots, was beheaded at Fotheringhay, England, after 19 years as a prisoner of Queen Elizabeth I. She became entangled in the complex political events surrounding the Protestant Reformation in England and was charged with complicity in a plot to assassinate Elizabeth.

February 10,

1942 – The first Medal of Honor during World War II was awarded to 2nd Lt. Alexander Nininger (posthumously) for heroism during the Battle of Bataan.

1967 – The 25th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution was ratified, clarifying the procedures for presidential succession in the event of the disability of a sitting president.

February 11

660BC – Celebrated in Japan as the founding date of the Japanese nation, which occurred with the accession to the throne of the first Emperor, Jimmu, in 660 BC.

 1929 – Italian dictator Benito Mussolini granted political independence to Vatican City and recognized the sovereignty of the Pope (Holy See) over the area, measuring about 110 acres.
1958 – Ruth Carol Taylor was the first black woman to become a stewardess by making her initial flight.

1990 – In South Africa, Nelson Mandela, at age 71, was released from prison after serving 27 years of a life sentence on charges of attempting to overthrow the apartheid government. In April 1994, he was elected president in the first all-race elections.

2011 – In Egypt, President Hosni Mubarak resigned amid a massive protest calling for his ouster. Thousands of young Egyptians and others had protested non-stop for 18 days in Cairo, Alexandria and elsewhere. Mubarak had ruled Egypt for nearly 30 years, functioning as a virtual dictator.

February 12

February 13

 1635 – Boston Latin School, the first tax-payer supported (public) school in America was established in Boston, Massachusetts.

 1945 – During World War II in Europe, British and American planes began massive bombing raids on Dresden, Germany. A four-day firestorm erupted that was visible for 200 miles and engulfed the historic old city, killing an estimated 135,000 German civilians.

February 14

14th – Celebrated as (Saint) Valentine’s Day around the world, now one of the most widely observed unofficial holidays in which romantic greeting cards and gifts are exchanged.

1849 – Photographer Mathew Brady took the first photograph of a U.S. President in office, James Polk.

 1929 – The St. Valentine’s Day massacre occurred in Chicago as seven members of the Bugs Moran gang were gunned down by five of Al Capone‘s mobsters posing as police.

February 15 

1898 – In Havana, the U.S. Battleship Maine was blown up while at anchor and quickly sank with 260 crew members lost. The incident inflamed public opinion in the U.S., resulting in a declaration of war against Spain on April 25, 1898, amid cries of “Remember the Maine!”

 1933 – An assassination attempt on newly elected U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt occurred in Miami, Florida. A spectator deflected the gunman’s aim. As a result, Chicago Mayor Anton Cermak was shot and killed instead. The gunman, an Italian immigrant, was captured and later sentenced to death.

1989 – Soviet Russia completed its military withdrawal from Afghanistan after nine years of unsuccessful involvement in the civil war between Muslim rebel groups and the Russian-backed Afghan government. Over 15,000 Russian soldiers had been killed in the fighting.

 

February 16

 

February 17

 1865 – During the American Civil War, Fort Sumter in South Carolina was returned to the Union after nearly a year and a half under Confederate control. The fort had been the scene of the first shots of the war.

 1909 – Apache Chief Geronimo (1829-1909) died while in captivity at Fort Sill, Oklahoma. He had led a small group of warriors on raids throughout Arizona and New Mexico. Caught once, he escaped. The U.S. Army then sent 5,000 men to recapture him.

February 18

1841 – The first continuous filibuster in the U.S. Senate began. It lasted until March 11th.

1952 – Greece and Turkey became members of NATO

2001 – FBI agent Robert Philip Hanssen was arrested and accused of spying for Russia for more than 15 years. He later pleaded guilty and was sentenced to life in prison without parole.

1998 – In Nevada, two white separatists were arrested and accused of plotting a bacterial attack on subways in New York City.

1970 – The Chicago Seven defendants were found innocent of conspiring to incite riots at the 1968 Democratic national convention.

1998 – In Russia, money shortages resulted in the shutting down of three plants that produced nuclear weapons.

1885 – Mark Twain’s “Adventures of Huckleberry Finn” was published in the U.S. for the first time.

1930 – The planet Pluto was discovered by Clyde Tombaugh. The discovery was made as a result of photographs taken in January 1930.

February 19

Daisy Gatson Bates Day honors the life of Daisy Gatson Bates, a civil rights activist who played a key role in an integration crisis at Little Rock Central High School in 1957. Daisy Gatson Bates Day is a state holiday in Arkansas, the United States, on the third Monday of February, together with Washington’s Birthday.

1942 – Internment of Japanese Americans began after President Franklin Roosevelt issued an Executive Order requiring those living on the Pacific coast to report for relocation. Over 110,000 persons therefore shut down their businesses, sold off their property, quit school and moved inland to the relocation centers.

Washington’s Birthday, also known as Presidents’ Day, is a federal holiday held on the third Monday of February. The day honors presidents of the United States, including George Washington, the USA’s first president.

1807 – Former U.S. Vice President Aaron Burr was arrested in Alabama. He was later tried and acquitted on charges of treason

1942 – U.S. President Roosevelt signed an executive order giving the military the authority to relocate and intern Japanese-Americans.

1953 – The State of Georgia approved the first literature censorship board in the U.S. Newspapers were excluded from the new legislation.

2004 – Former Enron Corp. chief executive Jeffrey Skilling was charged with fraud, insider trading and other crimes in connection with the energy trader’s collapse. Skilling was later convicted and sentenced to more than 24 years in prison.

February 20

 1943 – German Field Marshal Erwin Rommel broke through American lines at Kasserine Pass in North Africa as inexperienced U.S. Troops lost their first major battle of World War II in Europe, with 1,000 Americans killed.

1962 – Astronaut John Glenn became the first American launched into orbit. Traveling aboard the “Friendship 7” spacecraft, Glenn reached an altitude of 162 miles (260 kilometers) and completed three orbits in a flight lasting just under five hours. Glenn was the third American in space, preceded by Alan Shepard and Virgil “Gus” Grissom who had each completed short sub-orbital flights. All of them had been preceded by Russian cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin who was the first human in space, completing one orbit on April 12, 1961 – a feat that intensified the already ongoing Space Race between the Russians and Americans. Glenn’s successful flight showed the Americans had caught up and was followed in September 1962 by President John F. Kennedy’s open call to land an American on the moon before the decade’s end.

1952 – Emmett L. Ashford became the first black umpire in organized baseball. He was authorized to be a substitute in the Southwestern International League.

1962 – John Glenn made space history when he orbited the world three times in 4 hours, 55 minutes. He was the first American to orbit the Earth. He was aboard the Friendship 7 Mercury capsule. Glenn witnessed the Devil’s Cigarette Lighter while in flight.

1987 – A bomb exploded in a computer store in Salt Lake City, UT. The blast was blamed on the Unabomber.

February 21

1965 – Former Black Muslim leader Malcolm X (1925-1965) was shot and killed while delivering a speech in a ballroom in New York City.

 1972 – President Richard Nixon arrived in China for historic meetings with Chairman Mao Tse-tung and Premier Chou En-lai.

1994 – CIA agent Aldrich Ames was arrested on charges he spied for the Soviet Union from 1985 to 1991.

February 22

 1956 – In Montgomery, Alabama, 80 participants in the three-month-old bus boycott voluntarily gave themselves up for arrest after an ultimatum from white city leaders. Martin Luther King and Rosa Parks were among those arrested. Later in 1956, the U.S. Supreme Court mandated desegregation of the buses.

Birthday – George Washington (1732-1799) was born in Westmoreland County, Virginia. He served as commander of the Continental Army during the American Revolution and became the first U.S. President.

February 23

1942 – During World War II, the first attack on the U.S. mainland occurred as a Japanese submarine shelled an oil refinery near Santa Barbara, California, causing minor damage.

1991 – In Desert Storm, the Allied ground offensive began after a devastating month-long air campaign targeting Iraqi troops in both Iraq and Kuwait.

Birthday – African American educator and leader W.E.B. Du Bois (1868-1963) was born in Great Barrington, Massachusetts.

Birthday – Historian William L. Shirer (1904-1993) was born in Chicago, Illinois. As a news reporter stationed in Europe, he witnessed the rise of Adolf Hitler and reported on the surrender of France. Following the war he wrote the first major history of Nazi Germany, The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich.

February 24

1582 – Pope Gregory XIII corrected mistakes on the Julian calendar by dropping 10 days and directing that the day after October 4, 1582 would be October 15th. The Gregorian, or New Style calendar, was then adopted by Catholic countries, followed gradually by Protestant and other nations.

1867 – The House of Representatives voted to impeach President Andrew Johnson. The vote followed bitter opposition by the Radical Republicans in Congress toward Johnson’s reconstruction policies in the South. However, the effort to remove him failed in the Senate by just one vote.

February 25 

Birthday – Millicent Fenwick (1910-1992) was born in New York City. She championed liberal causes, serving as a member of the U.N. General Assembly and as a U.S. Congresswoman.

February 26

1848 – The Communist Manifesto pamphlet was published by two young socialists, Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. It advocated the abolition of all private property and a system in which workers own all means of production, land, factories and machinery.

 1994 – Political foes of Russian President Boris Yeltsin were freed by a general amnesty granted by the new Russian Parliament.

Birthday – American frontiersman “Buffalo Bill” Cody (1846-1917) was born in Scott County, Indiana. He claimed to have killed over 4,000 buffalo within 17 months. He became world famous through his Wild West show which traveled throughout the U.S. and Europe for 30 years.

February 27

 1950 – The 22nd Amendment to the U.S. Constitution was ratified, limiting the president to two terms or a maximum of ten years in office.

1991 – In Desert Storm, the 100-hour ground war ended as Allied troops entered Kuwait just four days after launching their offensive against Saddam Hussein’s Iraqi forces.

Birthday – American poet Henry Wadsworth Longfellow (1807-1882) was born in Portland, Maine. Best known for Paul Revere’s RideThe Song of Hiawatha, and The Wreck of the Hesperus.

February 28

 1844 – During a demonstration of naval fire power, one of the guns aboard the USS Princeton exploded, killing several top U.S. government officials on the steamer ship, and narrowly missed killing President John Tyler.

1986 – Swedish Prime Minister Olof Palme (1927-1986) was assassinated in Stockholm while exiting a movie theater with his wife.

 1994 – NATO conducted its first combat action in its 45 year history as four Bosnian Serb jets were shot down by American fighters in a no-fly zone.

 

Coronavirus on Surfaces: What You Should Know


April 1, 2020 — Many emergency room workers remove their clothes as soon as they get home — some before they even enter. Does that mean you should worry about COVID-19 transmission from your own clothing, towels, and other textiles?

While researchers found that the virus can remain on some surfaces for up to 72 hours, the study didn’t include fabric. “So far, evidence suggests that it’s harder to catch the virus from a soft surface (such as fabric) than it is from frequently touched hard surfaces like elevator buttons or door handles,” wrote Lisa Maragakis, MD, senior director of infection prevention at the Johns Hopkins Health System.

for the complete article:  webmd.com/lung/news/20200401

It is an incredible eye-opening article

Sign up for the latest coronavirus news.

FDA/USDA september RECALLS -UPDATES FOR PREVIOUS MONTHS ~ SAFETY ALERTS~ 2021


** Committed to the quality of its products and out of an abundance of caution, SEVIROLI FOODS, INC, of Bellmawr, NJ is recalling H-E-B Jumbo Stuffed Shells – 22 oz due to potential presence of foreign material in product (Metal). Consumption of hard or sharp foreign material could cause physical injury. The affected products were distributed to H-E-B stores in Texas.

The issue was discovered on September 09, 2021, after H-E-B was notified of four customer complaints. All product related to this recall has been removed from H-E-B store shelves.

The following products, with the specific lot numbers, are subject to recall:

Item #UPC #Item DescriptionLot CodeSell by Date
796702041220771110HEB Jumbo Stuffed Shells – 22 oz2 120807/27/22

Code is located on the back of the back, upper left corner. Consumers who have purchased these products are urged not to consume them. These products should be thrown away or returned to the place of purchase for a full refund.

Customers with any questions or concerns may contact H-E-B Customer Service at 1-855-432-4438 Monday through Friday from 8 a.m. to 6 p.m. Central Standard Time. Anyone concerned about an injury or illness should contact a healthcare provider. Media questions please contact Valentino Lucio news@heb.com

**

** Plainsboro, New Jersey, Jacobus Pharmaceutical Company Inc. is voluntarily recalling 3 lots of Ruzurgi® (amifampridine) 10 mg tablets to the consumer level. The products have been found to be contaminated with yeast, mold, and aerobic bacteria based on laboratory test results.

Oral products heavily contaminated with yeast, mold, and aerobic bacteria may result in serious and life-threatening infections. The use of the defective product in patients with underlying immunosuppressive conditions such as Lambert Eaton Syndrome (LEMS) increases the concern for serious infections.

The product is used as a treatment for LEMS in patients ages 6 to less than 17 and is packaged in 100 count bottles (NDC: 49938-110-01). The affected Ruzurgi® (amifampridine) tablets lots include the following control numbers and expiration dates:

Control Number 18038, Expiration 03/2023

Control Number 18039, Expiration 03/2023

Control Number 18079, Expiration 05/2023

The Control Number is located to the right of the bottle’s front panel below the D2 Barcode.

Ruzurgi® (amifampridine) was distributed worldwide to specialty pharmacies and physicians.

Jacobus was informed of this issue by their Canadian partner that was conducting confirmatory full testing on Control Number 18038. Jacobus conducted an expanded investigation which identified Control Numbers 18039 and 18079.

Control Number 18038 was distributed between 05/25/2021 – 08/26/2021 (Canada only)
Control Number 18039 was distributed between 06/01/2021 – 08/10/2021
Control Number 18079 was distributed between 08/10/2021 – 08/30/2021

Jacobus Pharmaceutical Company Inc is notifying its distributors and customers via regular mail and electronic mail and is arranging for return of all recalled products. Consumers that have Ruzurgi® (amifampridine) which is being recalled should stop using and return this product.

If shipping via US Postal Service ship to:
Jacobus Pharmaceutical Company, Inc.
P.O. Box 5290, Princeton, NJ 08540.

If shipping via courier service (i.e., UPS, FedEx, etc.) ship to:
Jacobus Pharmaceutical Company, Inc.
IRL Building
31 Schalks Crossing Road
Plainsboro, NJ 08356.

Consumers with questions regarding this recall can contact Jacobus Pharmaceutical Company Inc. by phone at (609)799-8221 ext. 2120, Monday thru Friday from 9:00 AM to 5:00 PM Eastern Standard Time.

** Monterey, California – September 10, 2021 – Dole Fresh Vegetables, Inc.  is voluntarily recalling a limited number of cases of conventional Curly Leaf Parsley. The product being recalled is Dole® Curly Leaf Parsley, with harvest dates of August 18, 2021, and August 19, 2021.  A random, routine regulatory sample collected in Michigan tested positive for non-O157 STEC (Shigatoxin-producing E. coli). Dole Fresh Vegetables is coordinating closely with regulatory officials in connection with the Recall; no illnesses have been reported. 

Shiga-toxin-producing E. coli  is an organism that can cause foodborne illness in a person who eats a food item contaminated with it. Symptoms of infection may include stomach cramps, diarrhea, and vomiting.

The illness primarily impacts elderly individuals, children, and people with weakened immune systems. Most healthy adults and children rarely become seriously ill.

The product was distributed to retail stores, wholesalers, and distributors in two pack sizes – 60-count (74 cases) and 30-count (39 cases). Retailers, wholesalers, and distributors can find the product code in the lower right portion of the PTI label.  The product code for both the 60 count cases and the 30 count cases is 0 07143 000310 3.  Individual bunches of parsley purchased by consumers have a price look-up (PLU) number on binding twist-ties of 4899 and a UPC code of 0 3383 80330 0. The Curly Leaf Parsley subject to this Recall was distributed in FL, IA, MI, MN, and MO.

This precautionary recall is being initiated due to a positive non-O157 STEC result found on a single sample collected by the Michigan Department of Agriculture during routine random sampling.

** 026-2021, Greater Omaha Packing Recalls Raw Beef Products Due to Possible E. Coli O157:H7 Contamination (Jul 29, 2021)

** 028-2021, Serenade Foods Recalls Frozen Raw Breaded Stuffed Chicken Products due to Possible Salmonella Enteritidis Contamination (Aug 10, 2021)

** Fratelli Beretta USA, Inc., a Mount Olive, N.J. establishment, is recalling approximately 862,000 pounds of uncured antipasto products that may be contaminated with Salmonella Infantis and/or Salmonella Typhimurium, the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) announced today.

The ready-to-eat (RTE) uncured antipasto meat trays were produced on February 28, 2021 through August 15, 2021. The following products are subject to recall [view labels]:   

  • 24-oz. trays containing two 12-oz packages of “Fratelli Beretta UNCURED ANTIPASTO PROSCIUTTO, SOPPRESSATA, MILANO SALAMI & COPPA” with best by dates of AUG 27 21 through FEB 11 22 and UPC code 073541305316.

The products subject to recall bear establishment number “EST. 7543B” printed on the packaging next to the best by date. These items were shipped to retail locations nationwide.     

Consumers with questions regarding the recall can contact Fratelli Beretta USA Inc.’s recall hotline at 1-866-918-8738. Media may contact Marco Lastrico of Barabino & Partners USA, at m.lastrico@barabinousa.com or 917-634-1685.

** On August 4, 2021, Cardinal Health (NYSE: CAH) initiated a nationwide recall of approximately 267 million MonojectTM Flush Prefilled Saline Syringes (0.9% Sodium Chloride). The products have been found to reintroduce air into the syringe after the air has been expelled. This could result in injection of air into blood vessels and create the potential for air embolism, which can cause serious adverse health outcomes or death.

Customers who have affected product(s) should immediately review their inventory and quarantine and return all affected product. The recall applies to all lots of the products manufactured from July 2019 to June 2021 distributed between July 2019 and July 2021.

The following SKUs have been recalled:

Name of ProductSKUs
12mL Syringe, 10 mL Saline Fill8881570121
12mL Syringe, 3 mL Saline Fill8881570123
12mL Syringe, 5 mL Saline Fill8881570125

Our Monoject™ 3mL syringe, 2.5mL Saline Fill is not affected by this recall. This item, SKU 8881570300, will be available for sale until inventory is depleted.

MonojectTM Flush Prefilled Saline Syringes can be identified by the barrel of the syringe, the case and the box as shown in the pictures below:

The company has received 37 reports of the plunger pulling back. No injuries have been reported to date.Cardinal Health voluntarily recalled MonojectTM Flush Prefilled Saline Syringes after learning that there is potential for the syringe’s plunger to draw back and reintroduce air back into the syringe. Cardinal Health has notified the U.S. Food and Drug Administration of this action.

Cardinal Health notified its distributors and customers by overnight delivery of a notification packet on August 5, 2021 and is arranging for return of all recalled products.

Cardinal Health distributes this product nationwide.

Customers with questions may contact the market action team via telephone at 800-292- 9332 between the hours of 8 a.m. – 5 p.m. EST. Customers may also contact the team

** Loki Fish Company of Seattle, Washington is recalling 4 oz. packages of Keta Salmon Lox (UPC code 92103 00111) because it has the potential to be contaminated with Listeria monocytogenes, an organism which can cause serious and sometimes fatal infections in young children, frail or elderly people, and others with compromised immune systems. Although healthy individuals may suffer only short-term symptoms such as high fever, severe headache, stiffness, nausea, abdominal pain and diarrhea, listeria infection can cause miscarriages and stillbirths among pregnant women.

The Keta Salmon Lox is packaged in a 4 oz. plastic package on a coated board. It is labeled as Wild Keta Lox, Loki Fish Co., Seattle, WA. There are no best by dates on the package.

The Keta Salmon Lox was distributed through Cherry Sprout Produce in Portland, OR and Central Co-op and Pacific Coast Harvest in Seattle, WA. It was also sold at the University District and West Seattle Farmers Markets in WA.

No illnesses have been reported to date.

The possibility of contamination was discovered during the FDA inspection at our co-packer Felix Custom Smoking, of Monroe, Washington in July 2021. Loki submitted samples of the Keta Lox to Micro-Chem Laboratories for testing. Loki has ceased production, sales, and distribution of keta lox immediately and Loki will continue the investigation as to what caused the problem.

If you have purchased this product, please do not consume it, and get rid of it immediately. You can return it to your place of purchase or to Loki Fish Company at the farmers market for a full refund. Consumers with questions may contact Hing Ng at Loki Fish Company (hing@lokifish.com; 206-937-1048, Monday-Friday, 8:30 a.m. to 5:00 p.m.)

Public Advisory Link

1928-Hundreds of Black Victims of Hurricane Denied Proper Burial in West Palm Beach, Florida



On September 16, 1928, a Category 4 hurricane with winds of 140 miles per hour made landfall in Palm Beach County, Florida. The hurricane destroyed a levee that protected a number of small, low-lying farming communities from the waters of Lake Okeechobee. Water from Lake Okeechobee rushed in when the levee was destroyed, killing thousands. Most residents in these areas were Black migrant farm workers.

Historical Marker

After the hurricane, Black survivors were forced to recover the bodies of those killed. The officials in charge of the recovery effort ordered that food would be provided only to those who worked, and some people who refused to work were shot.

The bodies of white storm victims were buried in coffins in local cemeteries, but local officials refused to provide coffins or proper burials for Black victims. Instead, their corpses were stacked in piles by the side of the roads, doused in fuel oil, and burned. Authorities bulldozed the bodies of 674 Black victims into a mass grave in West Palm Beach. The mass grave was not marked and the site was later sold for private industrial use—first used as a garbage dump, then a slaughterhouse, and then a sewage treatment plant.

calendar.eji.org

1893 Settlers race to own fertile land taken from the Cherokee … creating “Trail of Tears”


On September 16, 1893, the largest land run in history begins with more than 100,000 people pouring into the Cherokee Strip of Oklahoma to claim valuable land that had once belonged to Native Americans. With a single shot from a pistol the mad dash began, and land-hungry pioneers on horseback and in carriages raced forward to stake their claims to the best acres.

Ironically, not many years before that same land had once been considered worthless desert. Early explorers of Oklahoma believed that the territory was too arid and treeless for white settlement, but several suggested it might be the perfect place to resettle Native Americans, whose rich and fertile lands in the southeast were increasingly coveted by Americans. The U.S. government later took this advice and began removing eastern tribes like the Cherokee and Choctaw to Oklahoma Territory in 1817. No more eager than the whites to leave their green and well-watered lands for the arid plains, some Native Americans resisted and had to be removed by force-most tragically, the 4,000 Cherokee who died during the brutal overland march known appropriately as the “Trail of Tears.”

For the complete article … go to the link below

history.com

September 16 ~ History


1620 – The Mayflower departed from Plymouth, England. The ship arrived at Provincetown, MA, on November 21st and then at Plymouth, MA, on December 26th. There were 102 passengers on board.

1893 – The “Cherokee Strip” in Oklahoma was swarmed by hundreds of thousands of settlers aka white people

1990 – An eight-minute videotape of an address by U.S. President George H.W. Bush was shown on Iraqi television. The message warned that action of Saddam Hussein could plunge them into a war “against the world.”

1994 – Exxon Corporation was ordered by federal jury to pay $5 billion in punitive damages to the people harmed by the 1989 Exxon Valdez spill.

1994 – Two astronauts from the space shuttle Discovery went on the first untethered spacewalk in 10 years.

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