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Separation of Church and State …


United States

John Locke, English political philosopher argued for individual conscience, free from state control

The concept of separating church and state is often credited to the writings of English John Locke.[1] philosopher According to his principle of the social contract, Locke argued that the government lacked authority in the realm of individual conscience, as this was something rational people could not cede to the government for it or others to control. For Locke, this created a natural right in the liberty of conscience, which he argued must therefore remain protected from any government authority. These views on religious tolerance and the importance of individual conscience, along with his social contract, became particularly influential in the American colonies and the drafting of the United States Constitution.[21]Thomas Jefferson stated: “Bacon, Locke and Newton..I consider them as the three greatest men that have ever lived, without any exception, and as having laid the foundation of those superstructures which have been raised in the physical and moral sciences”[22][23] Indeed such was Locke’s influence,

The concept was implicit in the flight of Roger Williams from religious oppression in Massachusetts to found what became Rhode Island on the principle of state neutrality in matters of faith.[24][25]

Reflecting a concept often credited in its original form to the English political philosopher John Locke,[1] the phrase separation of church and state is generally traced to the letter written by Thomas Jefferson in 1802 to the Danbury Baptists, in which he referred to the First Amendment to the United States Constitution as creating a “wall of separation” between church and state.[2]United States Supreme Court first in 1878, and then in a series of cases starting in 1947. This led to increased popular and political discussion of the concept. The phrase was quoted by the

The concept has since been adopted in a number of countries, to varying degrees depending on the applicable legal structures and prevalent views toward the proper role of religion in society. A similar principle of laïcité has been applied in France and Turkey, while some socially secularized countries such as Norway have maintained constitutional recognition of an official state religion. The concept parallels various other international social and political ideas, including secularism, disestablishment, religious liberty, and religious pluralism.

source: internet

Science.Howstuffworks.com – reminder 2010


A repost – it’s interesting and informative
10 Sustainable Buildings

10 Sustainable Buildings

Green building is no longer a thing of the future. Find out how architects and builders use solar panels, plastic bottles and straw bale insulation for ten environmentally friendly structures.

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10 Things You Can Do to Help Save the Earth

10 Things You Can Do to Help Save the Earth

It’s a lot easier than you think to “go green” — many of these suggestions require little effort, yet can make a big difference for the environmental. Watch a video and read more about saving the earth.

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5 Amazing Green Cities

5 Amazing Green Cities

Sure, the Emerald City looked green, but you won’t need green-tinted glasses to see how environmentally friendly the cities on this list are. What makes a city amazingly green?

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5 Green Cities of the Future

5 Green Cities of the Future

Sustainable urbanism is no longer a futuristic dream. Welcome to five cities around the world that will be turning a radical shade of green in the coming decades.

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5 Myths About Renewable Energy

5 Myths About Renewable Energy

We’re currently suspended between two ages: a time dependent on fossil fuels and a future dominated by renewable energy sources. Yet not everyone is sold on this vision, so a number of myths about renewable energy persist.

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5 Wacky Forms of Alternative Energy

5 Wacky Forms of Alternative Energy

For those who reduce, reuse and recycle to the beat of their own drum, here are some of the wackier ways to help better the environment and lessen your carbon footprint.

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5 Walkable Cities

5 Walkable Cities

What makes a city walkable? It’s not just sidewalks. You have to be able to access jobs, stores and places of entertainment while feeling comfortable and safe. What are five cities in the United States that have risen to the challenge?

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Are climate skeptics right?

Are climate skeptics right?

It’s evident the debate over climate change is a heated one. Are skeptics clouding the public judgment for money? Are climate-change believers merely alarmists who risk the present for the future?

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Are my bath habits destroying marine ecology?

Are my bath habits destroying marine ecology?

After sloughing off your dead skin, what happens to those plastic microbeads that wash down the drain? Some make it all the way to the ocean and linger until they become a very unhealthy supper.

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Are personal watercraft destroying the planet?

Are personal watercraft destroying the planet?

They may seem like a fun water sport or a noisy nuisance, but whatever your stance on personal watercraft, there’s no denying they pollute. So how bad are they?

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Can air pollution affect heart health?

Can air pollution affect heart health?

Everyone knows air pollution isn’t good for your lungs, but it turns out that it’s not doing your heart any favors either. Why do the particulates in the air we breathe interfere with our heart’s basic job: to keep things ticking?

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Can baking soda save the environment?

Can baking soda save the environment?

One company’s SkyMine technology aims to capture industrial carbon dioxide emissions and turn them into an endlessly useful product: Baking soda. But how do pollutants become a household staple?

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Can house music solve the energy crisis?

Can house music solve the energy crisis?

Electrifying dance moves might impress your friends, but they usually don’t help power the club you’re dancing in. What’s piezoelectricity, and how could it help twist the future of energy generation?

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Can humans start an earthquake?

Can humans start an earthquake?

Earthquakes are “natural” disasters, right? Yes, but that doesn’t mean the shifting plates that cause them can’t be aggravated by human industry.

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Can I travel without expanding my carbon footprint?

Can I travel without expanding my carbon footprint?

You’ve booked a safari with the environment in mind. There’s just one problem: Trans-Atlantic flights aren’t very green. Can green tags make your gas-guzzling trip carbon neutral?

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Can my body generate power after I die?

Can my body generate power after I die?

Haunted by ideas of your body polluting the Earth after you’re gone? Microbial fuel cell technology could allow you to harness the energy of your own decomposition to power batteries.

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Can we bury our CO2 problem in the ocean?

Can we bury our CO2 problem in the ocean?

Carbon dioxide released from burning fossil fuels is a prime suspect in global warming. Could we mitigate the problem by burying the CO2 deep within the ocean?

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Can we harness energy from outer space?

Can we harness energy from outer space?

As alternative energy sources sputter to take off on Earth, scientists are turning an eye toward space. What are the most promising celestial options, and when could they be in use?

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Can we plug the hole in the ozone layer?

Can we plug the hole in the ozone layer?

The ozone layer prevents much of the sun’s ultraviolet light from reaching the Earth. But there’s a problem: a gaping hole the size of Antarctica. What can we do about it?

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Happy Cinco de Mayo


Happy Cinco de Mayo

The 5th of May is not Mexican Independence Day, but it should be!  Cinco de Mayo is not an American holiday 

Mexico declared its independence from mother Spain at midnight, the 15th of September, 1810.  It took 11 years before the first Spanish soldiers were told and forced to leave Mexico.

So, why Cinco de Mayo? And why would Americans savor this day as well? 

Because 4,000 Mexican soldiers smashed the French and traitor Mexican army of 8,000 at Puebla, Mexico, 100 miles east of Mexico City on the morning of May 5 1862. 

For more info:  history.com

Cinco de mayo ~~ May 5, 1862 Battle of Puebla


So, today is Cinco de Mayo; the history behind why Americans celebrate May 5th had me thinking about how a small group of people definitely living in a different era took a stand and while there are many stories of how people in our past stood up; such as John Lewis, MLK,Dorothy Height  and others , who most often marched  … Peacefully — maybe we in the 21st Century should gain strength from these stories of how these great people stood up f  themselves, had the courage to challenge laws rules and legislation that clearly perpetuated discriminatory behavior …

We the People of the 21st Century need to stand up stand tall and stand together against the people that seemingly want to take the rights away from a select few… Gotta say just considering a move toward or anything that is even remotely close to stripping our citizens rights away makes me scratch my head …whatever happened to being innocent until proven guilty? maybe not in this era of trump

As we all hear politicians hawk their claim to fame or what they will do for you. The media is going through their poll numbers spreading their collective rhetoric. I don’t know about you, but polls mean nothing when my vote hasn’t be included though the fact is … most democrats do show up to national elections more often and to be sure the day that Barack Obama became President was the day that MIDTERMS became just  as important and as the midterm races begin, hopefully a shift in reality will be to a hard left.  Americans need to be reminded that midterms matter so vote for a member  for Congress that will have courage to put Politics aside and do the work of the People to correct the years of questionable behavior on both sides of the aisle … If you want to live in a 21st Century America as most of us do, that means telling the 1%  your trickle down solution for the middle and lower class stopped working a long time ago. While republicans say cutting slashing and eliminating social programs is good because it will make folks more self-sufficient ask yourself how many of your members of Congress or their family needed help is on Medicare/caid Social Security or has had to deal with that donut hole that actually hurt our Seniors. Republicans in Congress are in it to win off the backs and at a cost to you your family least we talk about civil human  reproductive rights and our earth!

speaking of which …

Our environment has been put on the back burner since the trump admin came to power and now it is in serious jeopardy. The Obama Administration had environmental challenges and this admin needs to demand in-depth evaluations on the way BP ,Massey mining were handled while getting ready for more natural ones. The BP oil spill was a warning to Oil Corporations, who side stepped protocol and safety practices.  In the of case BP it was obvious … at least to most, that in the event of a spill  … a safety procedure should be deployed immediately, not made and put in place after the fact. We owe our children and the next generation a chance to breathe, live/have infrastructure for 21st Century living.

Americans want and need Congress to have the courage to regulate big Corporations! We need a complete overhaul on how oil drilling and transportation is handled in the future…

The Battle of Puebla took place on May 5th, 1862, near the city of Puebla during the French intervention in Mexico. The battle ended in a victory for the Mexican Army over the occupying French forces.

4,000 Mexican soldiers smashed the French and traitor Mexican army of 8,000 at Puebla, Mexico, 100 miles east of Mexico City on the morning of May 5 1862.  For more info:  history.com

Help Keep Trash Out of Our Oceans … repost


 

Each year, countless marine animals and sea birds are endangered by the flow of trash into our oceans. The fact is, Sea turtles are entangled and choked by plastic and discarded nets. Whales mistake trash bags for food and perish. And, let’s not forget the harmful impact contaminated marine environments have on human beings. Plastic also attracts and concentrates other pollutants from surrounding seawater, posing a contamination risk to those species that then eat it. Scientists are studying the impacts of that contamination on fish and shellfish.

From plankton to whales, animals across ocean ecosystems have been contaminated by plastic. Plastic has been found in 59% of sea birds like albatross and pelicans, in 100% of sea turtle species, and more than 25% of fish sampled from seafood markets around the world.

Marine debris isn’t an ocean problem—it’s a people problem. That means people are the solution. Ocean Conservancy is committed to keeping our beaches and ocean trash free. For more than 30 years we have organized the International Coastal Cleanup, where nearly 12 million volunteers from 153 countries have worked together to collect more than 220 million pounds of trash. And we’re not the only ones who care about ocean trash: Every day, all over the world, concerned people take the problem into their own hands by cleaning up their local waterways.

Tackling the problem of plastic in the ocean begins on land. Reduction in plastics use, especially of single-use disposable products, and the collection and recycling of plastics in developing countries can help to reduce the amount of plastic waste that enters the ocean.

At our International Coastal Cleanups, volunteers have picked up more than half a million straws and stirrers, making straws one of the top ten items on our annual list. Straws pose a real danger to animals like sea turtles, albatross and fish who can eat them. Take action today: #SKIPtheSTRAW !

Add your voice to the sea of people taking a stand for the ocean. Sign the pledge now and when offered a straw, simply say ‘no thanks.’

We can’t afford to trash our planet – so let’s do something about it.

Trash Travels – even if you do not live near the ocean, you can take action in your community to make sure litter does not end up in our waters.

Please Teach your kids to recycle properly … Save our Planet

resource: Earth Day Network, Ocean Conservancy