High Court Rules Bus Segregation Unconstitutional


Alabama and Montgomery Laws Held in Violation of the 14th Amendment

SCHOOL DECISION CITED

Case Involves Bus Company Boycotted by Negroes- Some Whites Bitter
By LUTHER A. HUSTON
Special to THE NEW YORK TIMES

Washington, Nov. 13 – An Alabama law and a city ordinance requiring segregation of races on intrastate buses were declared invalid by the Supreme Court today.

The Court affirmed a ruling by a three-judge Federal court that held the challenged statutes “violate the due process and equal protection clauses of the Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution of the United States.”

The Fourteenth Amendment provides that no state shall deprive any person of life, liberty, or property without due process of law nor deny to any citizen the equal protection of the laws.

In upholding the lower court’s judgment, the Supreme Court cited its 1954 decision outlawing racial discrimination in public parks and on public golf courses.

[Officials of several Southern states indicated they would continue to enforce bus segregation laws despite the court’s decision. Segregationist leaders were bitter in their denunciations of the court and its ruling.]
‘Separate But Equal’
Although only Alabama laws were involved today, the ruling was interpreted as outlawing state or municipal enactments anywhere that require separation of the races on public vehicles. It was thought to have placed a headstone at the grave of Plessy v. Verguson.

This was a case decided in 1896, in which the high court ruled that racial segregation on railroads was not unconstitutional if separate but equal facilities were provided.

The “separate but equal” doctrine later was applied to segregation in other fields, such as education, and generally prevailed until the high court’s ruling in school cases.

Since then the doctrine has been discarded in every test that has been brought to the Supreme Court.

Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, Oklahoma, Tennessee and Texas have laws that could be affected by today’s ruling.

Last term the Supreme Court had under advisement a case from Columbia, S.C. involving a similar issue. The Fourth Circuit Court of Appeals had invalidated South Carolina’s bus segregation law. The ruling was interpreted as applying also to bus segregation in Virginia, West Virginia, North Carolina and Maryland, which are in the Fourth Judicial Circuit.

In that case, however, the Supreme Court dismissed the appeal on technical grounds, although it did not specifically affirm or reverse the circuit court’s ruling.
Today’s order left little doubt that a new appeal in the Columbia case, if it again came to the High Court after procedural requirements had been compiled with in the lower courts, would suffer the fate of the Alabama statutes.

Grew Out of Boycott

The ruling affirmed today grew out of a boycott by Negroes in Montgomery, Ala., of the local buses. The boycott began last year and is continuing.
Aurelia S. Browder, Susie McDonald, Claudette Colvin and Mary Louise Smith, Negroes, had been required by bus drivers or the police to comply with segregation laws and had been arrested and fined for refusal to do so.
The Montgomery City code required bus operators to provide separate but equal accommodations for white and colored passengers. A state law also required segregation.
The four women did not appeal their convictions, but brought suit to challenge the constitutionality of the city code and the sate law.
A court composed of Circuit Judge Richard T. Rives and District Judges Frank M. Johnson Jr. and Seybourn H. Lynne heard the case. Judges Rives and Johnson held the challenged statues unconstitutional. Judge Lynne dissented.
The Alabama Public Service Commission and the Montgomery Board of Commissioners appealed to the Supreme Court. They asserted that the high court never had overruled the Plessy v. Ferguson decision. They urged the court to hear the case and give a clear-cut, written opinion disposing of the issue.
The court, however, merely granted a motion of lawyers for the Negroes that the lower court decision be affirmed.

John Patterson, Attorney General of Alabama, and Walter J. Knabe of Montgomery presented the appeals of the state and municipal bodies. The Negroes were represented by Thurgood Marshall, Robert L. Carter, Fred D. Gray and Charles D. Langford.

Slight Delay Is Foreseen

Fort Worth, Tex., Nov. 13 – United Circuit Judge Richard T. Rives of Montgomery, Ala., said today the Supreme Court injunction against segregation on Montgomery buses would go into effect as soon as the court’s order reached the United Sates District Court at Montgomery.

Customarily, an order takes two or three weeks to reach the district court, he said.

Judge Rives is in Fort Worth for a session of the Fifth Circuit Court of Appeals. He is one of three special judges whose decision on bus segregation was upheld by the Supreme Court today.

 

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Impeachment of 17th President ~ Andrew Johnson ~ “high crimes and misdemeanors”


The primary charge against Johnson was a violation of the Tenure of Office ActThe Impeachment Trial of Andrew Johnson

Why Was Andrew Johnson Impeached?

Andrew Johnson was the 17th president of the United States who served from April 15, 1865 to May 5, 1869. He was impeached on February 24, 1868, after violating the Tenure of Office Act. Johnson had fired Edwin M. Stanton, the Secretary of War, which was in violation of the law that requires the president to get Senate approval before dismissing a member of the cabinet.

Edwin M. Stanton was a radical and an influential Republican, and the Republican members of the House of Representatives sought to impeach the Democrat president three days later. Johnson had fired Stanton because of the constant clashes with members of the Republican Party concerning the treatment of the South after the end of the American Civil War. Republicans considered the president sympathetic and friendly to former slaveholders. Although the Republicans had more than the required two-thirds membership in the Senate, a small number of those members chose to support the president’s action, and Johnson ultimately survived the conviction by a single vote.

1789 – Benjamin Franklin wrote a letter to a friend in which he said, “In this world nothing can be said to be certain, except death and taxes.”


 

It was on this day in 1789 that Founding Father Benjamin Franklin wrote what was probably his last great quote, a saying about the Constitution and life that became true about five months later. Benjamin_Franklin_(1762)
In his time, Franklin may have been the most-quoted public figure of his generation. A publisher, entrepreneur and diplomat, Franklin became known for sayings or “proverbs” that appeared in Poor Richard’s Almanack and his newspaper, the Pennsylvania Gazette. In particular, Franklin wrote, or used other sources of content, for a 25-year period for his Almanack, as “Richard Saunders.”

To this day, there are discussions about the origins of some of these quotes. For example, one of the most-popular sayings attributed to Franklin is, “a penny saved is a penny earned.” This appears to be a combination of two Franklin proverbs.

Other famous Franklin quotes are well-documented. In “Advice To A Young Tradesman,” Franklin writes that, “Remember that time is money.”

But Franklin was also authored quotes in public documents from his involvement with the Declaration of Independence and the Constitutional Convention, and in a huge volume of personal correspondence.

And one of his last great quotes came as Franklin knew his life was near its end.

In November 1789, Franklin wrote French scientist Jean-Baptiste Le Roy, concerned that he hadn’t heard from Le Roy since the start of the French Revolution. Franklin wrote in French and the letter was later translated for the 1817 printing of his private correspondence.
After asking about Le Roy’s health and events in Paris for the past year, Franklin gives a quick update about the major event in the United States: the Constitution’s ratification a year before and the start of a new government under it.

“Our new Constitution is now established, everything seems to promise it will be durable; but, in this world, nothing is certain except death and taxes,” Franklin said. He concluded with a note about his own mortality to his friend: “My health continues much as it has been for some time, except that I grow thinner and weaker, so that I cannot expect to hold out much longer.”

Franklin would succumb to a combination of illnesses at the age of 84 in Philadelphia on April 17, 1790. In what thought to be his last known letter, Franklin wrote to Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson on April 8, responding to an earlier inquiry about a boundary dispute involving an area between the Bay of Fundy in Canada and Maine.
“Your Letter found me under a severe Fit of my Malady, which prevented my answering it sooner, or attending indeed to any kind of Business. I now can assure you that I am perfectly clear in the Remembrance that the Map we used in tracing the Boundary was brought to the Treaty by the Commissioners from England,” Franklin replied, asking Jefferson to speak with John Adams about the boundary.

“I have the Honor to be with the greatest Esteem and Respect Sir, Your most obedient and most humble Servant,” Franklin said in his last letter.

While the concept of a “death and taxes” quote existed before Franklin, the publication of his papers in 1817 made the proverb a staple in American popular culture.

resource: constitutioncenter.org