911 The “Sullivan Act” requiring New Yorkers to possess licenses for firearms small enough to be concealed comes into effect


The Sullivan Act is a gun control law in New York state that took effect in 1911. The NY state law required licenses for New Yorkers to possess firearms small enough to be concealed. Private possession of such firearms without a license was a misdemeanor, and carrying them in public was a felony.

Sullivan introduced the state-wide legislation “partly in response to a marked increase in highly publicized violent street crime below Fourteenth Street.”[2] Sullivan and other prominent New Yorkers were under public pressure to act, in the form of letters and recommendations from George Petit le Brun, who worked in the city’s coroner’s office, after a “brazen early afternoon” murder-suicide near Gramercy Park. The law went into effect on August 31, 1911.[3]

The law also made it a felony to own or sell other items defined as dangerous weapons, including “blackjacks, bludgeons, sandbags, sandclubs, billies, slungshots and metal knuckles.”[4]

According to Richard F. Welch, who wrote a 2009 biography of Sullivan, “all the available evidence indicates that Tim’s fight to bring firearms under control sprang from heartfelt conviction.”[5] At the time, “some complained that the law would only succeed in disarming lawful citizens, while others suspected that Sullivan was just trying to rein in the thugs on his own payroll.”[6] Lawman Bat Masterson, a friend of Sullivan’s, criticized the law as “obnoxious” and said that he questioned Sullivan’s mental state of mind over the law.

Source: wiki

1962 – The Caribbean nations Tobago and Trinidad became independent within the British Commonwealth


Caribbean Elections

Most Caribbean countries remained under colonial rule after the abolition of slavery. Between 1958 and 1962 most of the British-controlled Caribbean was integrated as the new West Indies Federation in an attempt to create a single unified future independent state. The West Indies Federation fell apart when the largest island Jamaica withdrew from the federation and declared itself independent in August 1962 followed by Trinidad and Tobago in August 1962.

 

Road to Independence

Most Caribbean countries remained under colonial rule after the abolition of slavery. Between 1958 and 1962 most of the British-controlled Caribbean was integrated as the new West Indies Federation in an attempt to create a single unified future independent state.

The West Indies Federation fell apart when the largest island Jamaica withdrew from the federation and declared itself independent in August 1962 followed by Trinidad and Tobago in August 1962. By the end of the 1960s, only few Caribbean islands remained dependent territories. Barbados gained its independence in 1966; the Bahamas in 1973; Grenada in 1974; Dominica in 1978; St. Lucia and St. Vincent and the Grenadines in 1979; Antigua and Barbuda in 1981; and St. Kitts and Nevis in 1983.

Currently, Montserrat, the British Virgin Islands, the Cayman Islands, and the Turks and Caicos Islands remained crown colonies with limited internal self-government. Anguilla, having broken away unilaterally from St. Kitts-Nevis in 1967, became an Associated State of Great Britain in 1976.