Halloween, contraction of All Hallows’ Eve, a holiday observed on October 31, the evening before All Saints’ (or All Hallows’) Day. The celebration marks the day before the Western Christian feast of All Saints and initiates the season of Allhallowtide, which lasts three days and concludes with All Souls’ Day. In much of Europe and most of North America, observance of Halloween is largely nonreligious.
Halloween is celebrated on Saturday, October 31, 2020.
By Sameer Rao Oct 29, 2015 Photo: Getty Images
On this day in 1969, the Supreme Court ordered immediate public school desegregation throughout the United States via its decision in Alexander v. Holmes County Board of Education.
Fifteen years after the U.S. Supreme Court ordered public school desegregation with “all deliberate speed” in Brown v. Board of Education Topeka, Kansas, most Southern states still had yet to fulfill its mandate.
It would take the action of Fifth Circuit Judge Hugo Black and the NAACP to force real change. Members of the NAACP protested a circuit court ruling in the summer of 1969 that granted the Justice Department and Department of Health, Education, and Welfare (HEW) an extension until December 1 to draw up desegregation plans for 33 Mississippi school districts. Given that it had already been nearly five years since the passage of the 1964 Civil Rights Act, the NAACP took the case to the Supreme Court
In Alexander v. Holmes County Board of Education—which was decided on this day in 1969—the Court ruled to underscore their previous mandates in Brown and Brown II and ordered immediate desegregation of public schools. Noting that the “all deliberate speed” language in Brown enabled Southern states to procrastinate, the Court’s decision took no chances, saying, “The obligation of every school district is to terminate dual school systems at once and to operate now and hereafter only unitary schools.”
Although much of the American public school system still remains racially segregated, the Supreme Court’s ruling is still an important standard for which to aspire and, thus, worthy of today’s #TBT.
Read the Court’s Alexander v. Holmes County Board of Education decision here.
On October 30, 1969, Richard Nixon signed landmark social security and Medicare legislation increasing much-needed benefits to widowed seniors who now receive 100 percent of their deceased spouses Social Security benefits and extended medical coverage to 1.5 million beneficiaries. The following is Nixon’s radio address broadcast the same day the legislation was passed:
A President signs many bills, but one that I signed today gave me special satisfaction because of the enormous impact it can have on the lives of millions of individual Americans.
I refer to the legislation known as H.R. 1–and especially to its provisions for helping, older Americans. Many of these provisions grew out of recommendations which I have been urging the Congress to act on for several years.
Let’s look at some of the things H.R. 1 will do:
First, nearly 4 million widows and widowers will get larger social security benefits–the full 100 percent of what was payable to the individual’s late husband or wife. This will mean more than $1 billion in additional income for these deserving people in the next fiscal year.
Second, over a million and a half older Americans who are now working can earn more income without having their benefits reduced.
Until today, if you were receiving social security, every dollar you earned above $1,680 cost you 50 cents in benefits–and every dollar you earned above $2,880 cost you a full dollar. But under the new provision-which I have advocated for years–you can earn up to $2,100 without losing a cent of social security, and every dollar you earn above that $2,100–no matter how many–will cost you only 50 cents in benefits. This will encourage more older Americans to work–helping them and helping the country.“
October 2nd: World Smile Day
October 6th: Physician Assistant Day
October 9th: Emergency Nurse Day
October 12th: Columbus Day
October 13th: United States Navy – Happy Birthday 1775
October 14th: S.A.V.E. Day (Stop American Violence Everywhere)
October 16th: Bosses Day
October 17th: Sweetest Day
October 24th: Make A Difference Day
October 31st: Halloween
October 4-10: Mental Illness Awareness Week (Green)
October 5-9: Customer Service Week
October 18-24: Invisible Disabilities Awareness Week (Purple)
October 19-25: Male Breast Cancer Awareness Week (Pink-Blue)
October 23-31: Red Ribbon Week (Red)
October 31-November 2: Day of the Dead (Dia de Los Muertos)
Fire Prevention Awareness Month (Thin Red Line)
Domestic Violence Awareness Month (Purple)
Down Syndrome Awareness Month (Blue-Yellow)
Sudden Infant Death Syndrome Awareness Month (Pink-Blue)
Pregnancy & Infant Loss Awareness Month (Pink-Blue)
Liver Cancer Awareness Month (Green)