Emancipation Proclamation: The 13th Amendment ~ Feb. 1, 1865


February 1, 1865

National Archives social media intern Anna Fitzpatrick.

Joint Resolution Proposing the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, 01/31/1865–01/31/1865; Enrolled Acts and Resolutions of Congress, 1789–2008; General Records of the United States Government, 1778–2006, Record Group 11; National Archives (National Archives Identifier: 1408764)

The news of the Emancipation Proclamation was greeted with joy, even though it did not free all the slaves. Because of the limitations of the proclamation, and because it depended on a Union military victory, President Lincoln recognized that the Emancipation Proclamation would have to be followed by a constitutional amendment in order to abolish slavery.

After the Senate passed a bill for an amendment in April 1864, but the House of Representatives did not, Lincoln suggested that the bill be taken up by the Republican Party in its 1864 platform for the upcoming Presidential elections.

His efforts met with success when the House passed the bill in January 1865. On February 1, 1865, President Abraham Lincoln approved the Joint Resolution of Congress submitting the proposed amendment to the state legislatures. The necessary number of states ratified it by December 6, 1865.

The 13th Amendment to the United States Constitution formally abolished slavery in the United States. It provides that ”Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.”
The struggle for complete freedom was far from finished even with the 13th Amendment. Two more amendments were added to the Constitution. Ratified in 1868, the 14th Amendment increased the liberties and rights granted by the Bill of Rights to former slaves. Two years later the 15th Amendment was ratified, giving African American men the right to vote. The Emancipation Proclamation helped make these rights and liberties available for newly freed people, as it was one of the first steps towards freedom for former slaves.

The 13th Amendment and its history are featured in the online exhibit “Our Documents.”
The story of the creation of the 13th Amendment is featured in “The Meaning and Making of Emancipation,” a free eBook created by the National Archives. You can read it on your iPad, iPhone, Nook, or other electronic device.

Pieces of History

January 3, 2013 by hilary parkinson, posted in – Civil War, Presidents

A blog of the U.S. National Archives

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Passed by Congress on January 31, 1865, and ratified on December 6, 1865, the 13th amendment abolished slavery in the United States.

The 13th amendment, which formally abolished slavery in the United States, passed the Senate on April 8, 1864, and the House on January 31, 1865. On February 1, 1865, President Abraham Lincoln approved the Joint Resolution of Congress submitting the proposed amendment to the state legislatures. The necessary number of states ratified it by December 6, 1865. The 13th amendment to the United States Constitution provides that “Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.”

In 1863 President Lincoln had issued the Emancipation Proclamation declaring “all persons held as slaves within any State, or designated part of a State, the people whereof shall then be in rebellion against the United States, shall be then, thenceforward, and forever free.” Nonetheless, the Emancipation Proclamation did not end slavery in the nation. Lincoln recognized that the Emancipation Proclamation would have to be followed by a constitutional amendment in order to guarantee the abolishment of slavery.

The 13th amendment was passed at the end of the Civil War before the Southern states had been restored to the Union and should have easily passed the Congress. Although the Senate passed it in April 1864, the House did not. At that point, Lincoln took an active role to ensure passage through congress. He insisted that passage of the 13th amendment be added to the Republican Party platform for the upcoming Presidential elections. His efforts met with success when the House passed the bill in January 1865 with a vote of 119–56.
With the adoption of the 13th amendment, the United States found a final constitutional solution to the issue of slavery. The 13th amendment, along with the 14th and 15th, is one of the trio of Civil War amendments that greatly expanded the civil rights of Americans.

ourdocuments.gov

Add your name to support the Paycheck Fairness Act


Even though Congress passed the Equal Pay Act more than 50 years ago, women on average still only make 80 cents for every dollar a man makes. It’s 2019, and it’s long past time for this to change.
Every worker in America deserves to be paid based on their work, not their gender. That’s why I’m introducing the Paycheck Fairness Act in the Senate this week to change and improve equal pay laws and continue the important work of closing the gender wage gap.

I’m fighting for legislation to finally make equal pay for equal work a reality, but I need your help to make it happen. Add your name now to support the Paycheck Fairness Act.

The gender wage gap is hurting all of us — women, our families, our communities, and our economy. Combined, working women are losing out on $900 billion a year that could be used to buy groceries, pay for child care, support local businesses, and build retirement savings.

Ten years ago this week, I watched as President Obama signed the Lilly Ledbetter Act, a good step forward in the fight to ensure women are paid fairly. We’ve made great strides in the last decade, but our fight isn’t finished until we fully close the wage gap and ensure every woman and man in this country is paid according to the quality of their work, and not their gender.
Sign your name now to join our fight for equal pay for equal work.
Thank you for your support,
Patty

pattymurray.com

Demand the Binghamton City School District End the Criminalization of Black Girls ~sign the Petition



A school nurse and vice principal at Binghamton East Middle School stripped searched four Black girls because they were acting “giddy” at lunch and school authorities suspected they were using drugs. Normal behavior for 12 year olds was used to justify strip searching four young Black girls in front of adults and traumatizing them. Three of the girls were forced to strip down to their underwear, while a fourth girl refused a search and was served with an in-school suspension instead.

We know that racist and sexist assumptions about Black girls lead to the perception that they are less innocent than white girls. These warped views play directly into the criminalization and rampant sexual abuse of Black girls; perpetrators aren’t worried about suffering serious consequences because societal messages tell them Black girls are without protection. These assumptions play directly into the fact that Black girls are six times more likely to be suspended from school than their white counterparts and lead to long term negative effects for their emotional and educational development. From the over-policing of Black girls hair, to strip searching them for exhibiting normal pre-teen behavior, the criminalization of Black girls must stop.

colorofchange.org
Here is the Petition:
Dear Dr. Tonia Thompson,

The events that took place at East Middle School on January 15, 2019 are unconscionable and cannot be allowed to go without just for the four girls who were embarrassed and traumatized. Strip searching four 12 year old Black girls because they were “giddy” during their lunch hour plays directly into harmful racist and sexist stereotypes that are pervasive about Black girls and results in their being suspended from school at six times the rate of their white counterparts. As the superintendent of Binghamton City School District, it is up to you to make this right.

Demand the Binghamton City School District End the Criminalization of Black Girl

At Color Of Change, we’re making the following demands of the Binghamton City School District:

  • Fire the nurse, assistant principal, and principal of the school and any other personnel who oversaw the strip searches
  • End all school strip searches district-wide
  • Pay for culturally competent counseling for the four students involved
  • Require all district employees to undergo ongoing cultural competency training