1789 – The U.S. Congress passed the First Judiciary Act. The act provided for an Attorney General and a lower federal courts.

Judiciary Act of 1789


The Judiciary Act of 1789, officially titled “An Act to Establish the Judicial Courts of the United States,” was signed into law by President George Washington on September 24, 1789. Article III of the Constitution established a Supreme Court, but left to Congress the authority to create lower federal courts as needed. Principally authored by Senator Oliver Ellsworth of Connecticut, the Judiciary Act of 1789 established the structure and jurisdiction of the federal court system and created the position of attorney general. Although amended throughout the years by Congress, the basic outline of the federal court system established by the First Congress remains largely intact today.

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Oliver Ellsworth, 1745-1807.
1 print: etching [no date recorded]
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The Little Rock Nine …

18 days of struggle

The Little Rock Nine were a group of nine black students who enrolled at formerly all-white Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas, in September 1957.

This Day in Black History: Sept. 24, 1957

President Dwight D. Eisenhower orders federal troops to escort nine Black students, nicknamed the “Little Rock Nine,” into the all-white Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas, on Sept. 24, 1957.

On Sept. 24, 1957, President Dwight D. Eisenhower ordered units of U.S. Army’s 101st Airborne Division to escort nine Black students, nicknamed the “Little Rock Nine,” into the previously all-white Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas

In the weeks before, the students were refused entry by the Arkansas National Guard and mobs of segregationists gathered to block the doors, abusing the Black teens with obscenities and death threats.

The “Little Rock Nine” attended their first full day of class on Sept. 25, 1957, and to ensure their safety, the federal officers were ordered to escort them to classes throughout the school year. Two of the students, Jefferson Thomas and Thelma Mothershed, earned their diploma from Central High School in 1960. A third member, Carlotta Walls, earned hers through correspondence classes. The remaining six students completed their high school educations at other schools.

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(Photo: Lloyd Dinkins/Commercial Appeal /Landov)

Written by Britt Middleton