Daily Archives: 03/04/2023
1789 – Government under the U.S. Constitution begins
The first session of the U.S. Congress is held in New York City as the U.S. Constitution takes effect. However, of the 22 senators and 59 representatives called to represent the 11 states who had ratified the document, only nine senators and 13 representatives showed up to begin …read more
History… March 4
1634 – Samuel Cole opened the first tavern in Boston, MA.
1681 – England’s King Charles II granted a charter to William Penn for an area that later became the state of Pennsylvania.
1766 – The British Parliament repealed the Stamp Act, which had caused bitter and violent opposition in the U.S. colonies.
1778 – The Continental Congress voted to ratify the Treaty of Amity and Commerce and the Treaty of Alliance. The two treaties were the first entered into by the U.S. government.
1789 – The first Congress of the United States met in New York and declared that the U.S. Constitution was in effect.
1791 – Vermont was admitted as the 14th U.S. state. It was the first addition to the original 13 American colonies.
1794 – The 11th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution was passed by the U.S. Congress. The Amendment limited the jurisdiction of the federal courts to automatically hear cases brought against a state by the citizens of another state. Later interpretations expanded this to include citizens of the state being sued, as well.
1813 – The Russians fighting against Napoleon reached Berlin. The French garrison evacuated the city without a fight.
1826 – The first railroad in the U.S. was chartered. It was the Granite Railway in Quincy, MA.
1837 – The state of Illinois granted a city charter to Chicago.
1861 – The Confederate States of America adopted the “Stars and Bars” flag.
1877 – Emile Berliner invented the microphone.
1880 – Halftone engraving was used for the first time when the “Daily Graphic” was published in New York City.
1881 – Eliza Ballou Garfield became the first mother of a U.S. President to live in the executive mansion.
1902 – The American Automobile Association was founded in Chicago.
1904 – In Korea, Russian troops retreated toward the Manchurian border as 100,000 Japanese troops advanced.
1908 – The New York board of education banned the act of whipping students in school.
1908 – France notified signatories of Algeciras that it would send troops to Chaouia, Morocco.
1914 – Dr. Gustave Le Fillatre successfully separated three-month-old Siamese twins. One of the twins died four days later.
1917 – Jeanette Rankin of Montana took her seat as the first woman elected to the House of Representatives.
1925 – Calvin Coolidge took the oath of office in Washington, DC. The presidential inauguration was broadcast on radio for the first time.
1930 – Emma Fahning became the first woman bowler to bowl a perfect game in competition run by the Women’s International Bowling Congress in Buffalo, NY.
1933 – U.S. President Franklin Roosevelt gave his inauguration speech in which he said “We have nothing to fear, but fear itself.”
1933 – Labor Secretary Frances Perkins became the first woman to serve in a Presidential administrative cabinet.
1942 – “Junior Miss” starring Shirley Temple aired on CBS radio for the first time.
1942 – The Stage Door Canteen opened on West 44th Street in New York City.
1947 – France and Britain signed an alliance treaty.
1950 – Walt Disney’s “Cinderella” was released across the U.S.
Disney movies, music and books
1952 – U.S. President Harry Truman dedicated the “Courier,” the first seagoing radio broadcasting station.
1952 – Ronald Reagan and Nancy Davis were married.
1954 – In Boston, Peter Bent Brigham Hospital reported the first successful kidney transplant.
1974 – “People” magazine was available for the first time.
1975 – Queen Elizabeth knighted Charlie Chaplin.
1986 – “Today” debuted in London as England’s newest, national, daily newspaper.
1989 – Time, Inc. and Warner Communications Inc. announced a plan to merge.
1991 – Sheik Saad al-Jaber al-Sabah, the prime minister of Kuwait, returned to his country for the first time since Iraq’s invasion.
1994 – Bosnia’s Croats and Moslems signed an agreement to form a federation in a loose economic union with Croatia.
1997 – U.S. President Clinton barred federal spending on human cloning.
1998 – Microsoft repaired software that apparently allowed hackers to shut down computers in government and university offices nationwide.
1998 – The U.S. Supreme Court said that federal law banned on-the-job sexual harassment even when both parties are the same sex.
1999 – Monica Lewinsky’s book about her affair with U.S. President Clinton went on sale in the U.S.
2002 – Canada banned human embryo cloning but permitted government-funded scientists to use embryos left over from fertility treatment or abortions.
2012 – Vladimir Putin won re-election in Russia’s presidential election.
11 yr old to police: rape is a crime
Kaia* was eleven years old when she was assaulted and raped on the way to school. A teacher took her to the hospital, but the police demanded bribes for even taking down a statement.
So Kaia did something incredibly brave. She sued the police for failing to protect her. What’s even more incredible is what happened next.
In Kenya where Kaia lives, a woman or girl is raped every 30 minutes. Police there routinely turn a blind eye, further isolating terrified young survivors and reinforcing the notion that rape is ok.
Kaia and ten other young survivors challenged that. On the day of the case, ignoring threats to their safety and a blockade from court security, they marched from their shelter to the courthouse, chanting “Haki yangu” — Kiswahili for “I demand my rights.” And then the judge issued his ruling: The girls had won!
The amazing advocates and human rights lawyers that worked with Kaia are ready to bring similar lawsuits against police forces across Africa and beyond, but they need funding to do it. We won’t process pledges until we reach our goal, but if just 30,000 of us pledge a small amount now, we can repeat this game-changing victory in other countries, remind police that rape is a crime, and take a powerful step forward against the global war on wom
When Kaia’s story began, she looked set to become just another of the countless victims of child rape ignored by the police. But Kenyan child rights advocate Mercy Chidi and Canadian human rights lawyer Fiona Sampson joined forces to challenge this injustice in the courts.
The plan was hatched in Kenya by a group of colleagues from Canada, Kenya, Malawi and Ghana — it seemed like a long shot to sue the police force for failing to act, but they stuck with it and took risks… and made legal history. The work has just begun: like any win, it takes time, effort and money to make sure the ruling sticks, and to use it as a springboard to wipe out violence against women.
If we raise enough, here’s how we could turn a huge victory for Kenya into a win for countries across Africa and even the rest of the world:
- help fund more cases like this, across Africa and around the world
- use hard-hitting campaign strategies to make sure these groundbreaking judgments are enforced
- push for massive, effective public education campaigns that strike at the root of sexual violence and help erase it for good
- respond to more campaign opportunities like this case — with super smart strategies that turn the tide in the war on women.
As citizens, we often appeal to political leaders and other officials to get serious about protecting women’s rights. It’s important to keep doing that, but when they fail to hear their consciences, we need to appeal to their interests, and take them to court. That sends a powerful message: not only that there are new consequences for their crimes, but that the era of unchallenged misogyny in the culture of our societies is coming to end.
Ricken, Maria Paz, Emma, Oli, Nick, Allison, Luca and the rest of the Avaaz team
* Kaia is a pseudonym, but her story is real. She is not pictured here.
PS – To pledge an amount other than the ones listed above, click here.
In Kenya, a Victory for girls and rights (The New York Times) http://www.nytimes.com/2013/06/05/opinion/global/in-kenya-a-victory-for-girls-and-rights.html Canadians force Kenyan police to answer for ‘inexcusably’ neglecting reports of sexual abuse against girls (National Post) http://news.nationalpost.com/2013/05/31/kenyan-police-forced-to-answer-for-neglecting-reports-of-sexual-abuse/ Chance meeting led to justice for rape victims (Toronto Star) http://www.thestar.com/news/insight/2013/06/13/chance_meeting_led_to_justice_for_rape_victims_porter.html African women the worst off – report (iOl News) http://www.iol.co.za/news/africa/african-women-the-worst-off-report-1.1537277#.UcqVaOthpFR Africa: Violence Against Women Is Epidemic (AllAfrica) http://allafrica.com/stories/201307160410.html India’s Rape Crisis Undermines the Country (The Daily Beast) http://www.thedailybeast.com/articles/2013/06/07/india-s-rape-crisis-undermines-the-country.html Malawi country report (UNICEF) http://www.unicef.org/infobycountry/malawi.html
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