Tag Archives: Martin Luther King Jr

Selma ~ called Bloody Sunday :Black History ~ American History


First March from Selma

When You Pray, Move Your Feet.

— African Proverb.

 

Charles White(?), photographer, Selma, Alabama, March 7, 1965.

photo courtesy of Representative John Lewis

John Lewis (on right in trench coat) and Hosea Williams (on the left) lead marchers across the Edmund Pettus Bridge.

On Sunday March 7, 1965, about six hundred people began a fifty-four mile march from Selma, Alabama to the state capitol in Montgomery. They were demonstrating for African American voting rights and to commemorate the death of Jimmie Lee Jackson, shot three weeks earlier by an state trooper while trying to protect his mother at a civil rights demonstration. On the outskirts of Selma, after they crossed the Edmund Pettus Bridge, the marchers, in plain sight of photographers and journalists, were brutally assaulted by heavily armed state troopers and deputies.

One hundred years after the Civil War, in many parts of the nation, the 15th Amendment had been nullified by discriminatory laws, ordinances, intimidation, violence, and fear which kept a majority of African Americans from the polls. The situation was particularly egregious in the city of Selma, in Dallas County, Alabama, where African Americans made up more than half the population yet comprised only about 2 percent of the registered voters. As far back as 1896, when the U.S. House of Representatives adjudicated the contested results of a congressional election held in Dallas County, it was stated on the floor of Congress:

…I need only appeal to the memory of members who have served in this House for years and who have witnessed the contests that time and time again have come up from the black belt of Alabama—since 1880 there has not been an honest election in the county of Dallas…

Hon. W. H. Moody, of Massachusetts

Contested Election Case, Aldrich vs. Robbins, Fourth District, Alabama: Speeches of Hon. W.H. Moody, of Massachusetts [et al.] in the House of Representatives, 3 (2239),

March 12 and 13, 1896.

From Slavery to Freedom, 1824-1909

However, by March 1965, the Dallas County Voters League, the Southern Christian Leadership Council (SCLC), and the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) were all working for voting rights in Alabama. John Lewis headed SNCC’s voter registration effort and, on March 7, he and fellow activist Hosea Williams led the group of silent marchers from the Brown Chapel AME Church to the foot of the Pettus bridge and into the event soon known as “Bloody Sunday.”

Alabama Police Attack Selma-to-Montgomery Marchers,

Federal Bureau of Investigation photograph

Selma, Alabama, March 7, 1965. —  http://www.nps.gov/history/nr/travel/civilrights/al4.htm

We Shall Overcome”: Historic Places of the Civil Rights Movement   —  http://www.cr.nps.gov/nr/travel/civilrights/index.htm

When ABC television interrupted a Nazi war crimes documentary, Judgement in Nuremberg, to show footage of violence in Selma a powerful metaphor was presented to the nation. Within forty-eight hours, demonstrations in support of the marchers were held in eighty cities and thousands of religious and lay leaders, including Dr. Martin Luther King, flew to Selma. On March 9, Dr. King led a group again to the Pettus Bridge where they knelt, prayed, and, to the consternation of some, returned to Brown Chapel. That night a Northern minister, who was in Selma to march, was killed by white vigilantes.

Outraged citizens continued to inundate the White House and the Congress with letters and phone calls. On March 9, for example, Jackie Robinson, the baseball hero, sent a telegram to the President:

“IMPORTANT YOU TAKE IMMEDIATE ACTION IN ALABAMA ONE MORE DAY OF SAVAGE TREATMENT BY LEGALIZED HATCHET MEN COULD LEAD TO OPEN WARFARE BY AROUSED NEGROES AMERICA CANNOT AFFORD THIS IN 1965”

In Montgomery, Federal Judge Frank Johnson, Jr. temporarily restrained all parties in order to review the case. And, President Lyndon Johnson addressed the American people before a televised Joint Session of Congress, saying, “There is no issue of States rights or national rights. There is only the struggle for human rights…We have already waited a hundred years and more, and the time for waiting is gone…”

Rev. Ralph Abernathy walking with Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., as They Lead Civil Rights Marchers out of Camp to Resume Their March

United Press International   — http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/94505571/

Selma to Montgomery, Alabama, March 21-25, 1965.

New York World-Telegram & Sun Collection,

Prints & Photographs Division  —  http://www.loc.gov/rr/print/

Allowing CBS footage of “Bloody Sunday” as evidence in court, Judge Johnson ruled on March 17, that the demonstrators be permitted to march. Under protection of a federalized National Guard, voting rights advocates left Selma on March 21 and stood 25,000 strong on March 25 before the state capitol in Montgomery. As a direct consequence of these events, the U.S. Congress passed the Voting Rights Act of 1965, guaranteeing every American twenty-one and over the right to register to vote. During the next four years the number of U.S. blacks eligible to vote rose from 23 to 61 percent.

John Lewis went on to serve as Director of the Voter Education Project, a program that eventually added nearly four million minorities to the voter rolls. To mark the thirty-fifth anniversary of “Bloody Sunday,” on March 7, 2000, Lewis, a U.S. Congressman from Atlanta’s 5th District, and Hosea Williams crossed the Pettus Bridge accompanied by President William Clinton, Coretta Scott King, and others. Asked to contrast this experience with that of 1965 the Congressman responded, “This time when I looked there were women’s faces and there were black faces among the troopers. And this time when we faced them, they saluted.”

•American Treasures is an exhibition of special items in the Library of Congress collections. The exhibition is divided into four sections: Top Treasures, Memory, Imagination, and Reason. The latter includes images taken about 1963 by Danny Lyon, staff photographer for SNCC, a key organizing body during the Civil Rights Movement.

•Search on the term Selma, Alabama in the black and white photos of the Farm Services Administration collection, FSA/OWI Photographs, 1935-1945 to see images of the city taken during the 1930s by the photographer Walker Evans. Search on Alabama to see images taken by the FSA photographers Dorothea Lange, Arthur Rothstein, Marion Post Wolcott, and Carl Mydans.

•The Great Migration made northerners more aware of disenfranchisement in the Deep South and newspapers like The Gazette and The Advocate fostered awareness within the black community. Search on the term vote in African-American Experience in Ohio, 1850-1920 to view about 100 items that address the issue. See, for example, the 1887 article “Negro Voting Power” and the 1888 article “First Colored Voter.” The poet Paul Lawrence Dunbar mentions Alabama disenfranchisement in his article “Paul Dunbar’s Protest.”

•Music drawn from a tradition of Southern spirituals helped sustain the Civil Rights Movement. Search on the term spiritual in the John Lomax and Ruby Terrel Lomax collection Southern Mosaic to hear some of the tunes which comprise that tradition. Listen, for example, to versions of “This Little Light of Mine,” “Long Way to Travel,” and “Great Day” as they were rendered in the South back in 1939.

•Images of 20th Century African American Activists: A Select List presents frequently requested images from the Prints & Photographs Division of the Library. Except where otherwise noted in the “Reproduction Number” line, images are considered to be in the public domain. The selection includes images of Martin Luther King, John Lewis, and Ralph Abernathy.

•Search the Today in History Archive on the term states rights to learn more about an issue which lay at the heart of the American system. Ironically, on March 7, 1850, (exactly 115 years before “Bloody Sunday”) Daniel Webster gave his famous “Seventh of March speech” in favor of the Compromise of 1850, which, while it postponed the Civil War, strengthened states’ rights at the cost of African-American freedom. Search on the term Alabama to learn more about events in the state, such as the arrest of Rosa Parks.

•With the exception of Concord Bridge, where the American Revolution began, no bridge in America marks an event as historically momentous as that marked by the Edmund Pettus Bridge. Nevertheless, search across the Photos and Prints section of American Memory on the term bridge to see a wide array of other bridges. See, for example, Burnside’s Bridge (fought over during the Battle of Antietam), a Covered Bridge in Vermont, and the Locust St. Bridge in Des Moines, Iowa. Also search the Today in History Archive on the term bridge to read features on the Brooklyn Bridge, Williamsburg Bridge, and Golden Gate Bridge.

Daniel Webster

I wish to speak today; not as a Mass[achusetts] man – nor a Northern man – but as an American, & a member of the Senate of the U[nited] S[tate]s.

Daniel Webster’s notes for his speech to the United States Senate favoring the Compromise of 1850, March 7, 1850.

Words and Deeds in American History: Selected Documents Celebrating the Manuscript Division’s First 100 Years

Daniel Webster

produced by Mathew Brady’s studio, circa 1851-1860.

America’s First Look into the Camera: Daguerrotype Portraits and Views, 1839-1864

The acquisition of territory following the U.S. victory in the Mexican War revived concerns about the balance of free and slave states in the Union. On March 7, 1850, Senator Daniel Webster delivered his famous “Seventh of March” speech urging sectional compromise on the issue of slavery. Advising abolition-minded Northerners to forgo antislavery measures, he simultaneously cautioned Southerners that disunion inevitably would lead to war.

Following the lead of senators Henry Clay and Stephen Douglas, Webster endorsed Clay’s plan to assure sectional equilibrium in Congress. Passed after eight months of congressional wrangling, the legislation admitted California to the Union as a free state, permitted the question of slavery in Utah and New Mexico territories to be decided by popular sovereignty, settled Texas border disputes, and abolished slave trading in the District of Columbia while strengthening the Fugitive Slave Act.

The legislative package known as the Compromise of 1850 postponed the Civil War by a decade. However, like the 1820 Missouri Compromise, the Compromise of 1850 failed to resolve the question of slavery in a meaningful way. Over the course of the 1850s, the inadequacies of both measures were made painfully clear. “Popular sovereignty” undermined the Missouri compromise by suggesting the earlier division of the country along the thirty-sixth parallel into free states and slave states no longer applied. Indeed, the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854 permitted slavery. The resulting bloodshed in Kansas, like later incidents at Harper’s Ferry, presaged the violent conflict of the Civil War.

Henry Clay

produced by Mathew Brady’s studio, circa 1850-1852.

America’s First Look into the Camera: Daguerrotype Portraits and Views, 1839-1864

Incidents of the War. A Harvest of Death, Gettysburg, July 1863.

Timothy H. O’Sullivan, photographer.

Selected Civil War Photographs

•Words and Deeds in American History: Selected Documents Celebrating the Manuscript Division’s First 100 Years , an online display of approximately ninety representative documents preserved by the Manuscripts Division, Library of Congress, includes features on John C. Calhoun’s speech to the United States Senate against the Compromise of 1850 and Henry Clay’s appointment as secretary of state on March 7, 1825.

•Read the Documentary History of Slavery in the United States by John Larkin Dorsey. A contemporary of Webster and Clay, Dorsey reviews slavery in the U.S. from 1774 and the Continental Congress to 1850 with special attention to the Fugitive Slave Law of 1850 and the probable dissolution of the Union. Search African American Perspectives: Pamphlets from the Daniel A. P. Murray Collection, 1818-1907 on slavery to access this document and many more.

•For more information about the movement to abolish slavery, visit the Abolition section of African American Odyssey, and the Abolition section of The African-American Mosaic as well. Also, read the Today in History features on Abolition in the District of Columbia , and on the abolitionists Lucretia Coffin Mott, and Elijah Parish Lovejoy.

•Browse The Frederick Douglass Papers. Many remarkable items are included in the papers of this nineteenth-century African-American abolitionist who escaped from slavery and then risked his own freedom by becoming an outspoken antislavery lecturer, writer, and publisher. The papers are divided into a series of nine sets. Set nine, for example, contains a booklet entitled Two Speeches by Frederick Douglass (on West Indian Emancipation and the Dred Scott Decision).

•A search on Daniel Webster in American Memory collections yields more than 2,000 items—including correspondence, speeches, images of statues, and even sheet music.

* Developed by the U.S. Department of Interior, National Park Service, U.S. Department of Transportation, The Federal Highway Administration, and the National Conference of State Historic Preservation Officers.

Black History Month

The answer is not in black or white


Just another rant … ongoing

beaseedforchangestickersGREENAs fights against discrimination in all its forms breaks out all over the U.S. one has to wonder why voters are drinking the Republican fear mongering kook aid instead of putting “We the People” ahead of Lobbying groups that arm their current or next elections with $$$ and the folks coming out ahead are the 1% NOT the rural guy or middle class worker.  In a place that has always welcomed and or cared for the poor, single mom’s with kids, the constitution; specifically the 14th Amendment, immigration, women’s , senior citizens and worker rights when the need is clear with votes on the Floor of Congress in the House against most if not all of the above.

The Republican Tea Party came to power in 2013 with even more ugly Colonial ways and ideologies on issues like – Race, Religion and the rights of its people. The GOP of 2013, say they speak for the people yet have decided to ignore the polls unless it’s against the Obama admin or democratic election races, they spent $24billion of the people’s money, a shutdown clearly a tantrum that can only hurt American in the long term. If you can, imagine what $24billion can do for your fellow Americans, ted cruz tossed out the window in 2013 while reading green eggs and ham.  I used to think all we had to worry about was what side of the political aisle these righties stood on and how many actually needed to be voted out of Congress. Now, it is all about states’ rights and what social program will the government cut, slash or burn while pitting the upper and middle class against the working class then eliminating those in need as well.  I would love msm to ask all or most republicans about being on social security! Is it a right, a privilege or something else that makes it ok for them while others needing social services are considered lazy need to get a job… They don’t know the individual situations circumstances of folks of colour V let a lone anyone else.  The fact is 1 out 6 people live in poverty and 20% … let me say that again, 20% of our American children live in poverty and for an ultra-rich country that information should offend and outrage us all.

If you listen to conservative media speak; because it is clear they control the airwaves …  the lines of fair or balanced news and behavior becomes blurry leaving the voter confused or having taken the fear mongering to heart and vote against their own best interest. I once said: If the GOP of 2013 gets their way, if they complete their mission, the only ones standing will be those who claim to be a member of the Republican Tea Party was replaced after what was a strange election battle those tea party folks got beat in 2016 election by folks who feared America was becoming too brown considered 2016-2020 nationalists or white nationalists wanting to be the only governing source or supporting family governing or even worse?

In 2013 Midterms turned out to be another 2010, and so goes that thing we say … Those that voted against their own best interest will get what they paid for and the rest of us will suffer … but when Hillary Clinton lost and it’s only my opinion but 2016 elections seemed different, rigged manipulated least we talk about the odd electoral results, no one saw this ish coming in the 21st Century?  sigh

We the People cannot keep allowing this to happen …3 steps forward and now in this era of trump we see being ” other than” is against the law, suffice it to say I wonder how much does team trump want to take of what was gained over the last few decades as  democracy seems to be slipping away?  Make your voice heard and vote vote vote … register others for 2019-2020 elections!

We all know that programs like Social Security, Medicaid as well as Medicare; considered Mandatory Spending accounting for almost 60% of federal expenditures and yes, they definitely are in need of reform but not elimination. The current crazy offensive fiscal attacks by Republicans do not seem to be because of the deficits we are facing but a brazen attempt to privatize these programs, get a copy of the Ryan Budget and be informed. Most people in the U.S. know the big three need updating but Republicans are not going to update or reform them of waste abuse and fraud or expand them either. The plan is to split them up into pieces where premiums and prices probably will have absolutely no regulation of or caps on how high or how often the costs could rise. I have to ask, didn’t Republicans learn a single thing from our near collapse and do these new tea party members of Congress just have a big itch to see what exactly happens when a government falls apart.

What we have here, what we have all been watching is the destruction of our government as we know it, seemingly trying to change it from the Republican Tea Party which really no longer exists or is based on a “family values platform” but one of overt discrimination … a we against them mentally, which includes and is not limited to banning Choice suppressing the Vote eliminating Social Services among many other things.

It is a disturbing and truly rude awakening watching and listening to how folks seem to want to turn back the clock and reinstate segregation, Jim crow and the poll tax.

Be a Seed for Change ~ Nativegrl77

About 3,000 Americans die from food-borne illnesses each year.


The USDA wants to cut corners and risk putting unsafe chicken on the market and on your kitchen table with their new “dirty chicken” rule—all to save a quick buck. Meanwhile, billionaires and corporations are getting tax breaks. It’s shocking.

Click here now to sign the petition against the “dirty chicken” rule.

I hope you don’t mind a little salmonella and E. coli in your chicken. Because if the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) gets its way, chicken contaminated with disease, feathers and other really disgusting stuff could be on its way to your dinner plate within the year.

We count on USDA inspectors to help us keep our families safe and healthy. But the USDA wants to save money by throwing about 1,000 of them out of work.

Hurry: Sign our petition against the “dirty chicken” rule today, and tell the USDA inspectors they can count on us, too.

About 3,000 Americans die from food-borne illnesses each year. But instead of doing more to protect our families, the USDA is taking budget cuts out on the inspectors we need. Not only would about 1,000 get the boot—the inspectors who keep their jobs would be told to inspect 175 chickens per minute. That’s more than three chickens per second!

Working people like us, and like USDA inspectors, take pride in our work. We work hard and make a difference. USDA’s “dirty chicken” rule would take that away while endangering our families.

Sign the petition against the “dirty chicken” rule TODAY.

This week, food inspection workers (members of the AFGE) rallied outside the
USDA to oppose this frightening measure—but a rally alone won’t stop this plan. We need massive public pressure.

This new inspection system for poultry slaughter plants is another example of attacks on everyday working people while billionaires and corporations are getting tax breaks. And this time, it’s putting our kids and families at risk while taking jobs away from people we count on. It’s shocking.

Tell the USDA you won’t settle for dirty chicken. Sign the petition today.

Only by standing together can we save the jobs of hundreds of federal workers who we count on to protect our families.

Thanks for the work you do.

In solidarity,

Manny Herrmann
Online Mobilization Coordinator, AFL-CIO

P.S. In his new book, Rebuild the Dream, Van Jones, a former Obama White House adviser on green jobs and an award-winning human rights activist, maps out how to turn Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.’s and the American Dream into reality.

Click here to learn more and order your copy.

We Are One: Attend a Local Event


Are you worried, frustrated, and angry about the continuing attacks on workers’ rights, women’s rights, economic security and opportunity for all? Are you looking for another way to demonstrate your concern — in addition to making phone calls and sending emails? On April 4, you can join with people in your community in events to send a strong message: We Are One.

On April 4, 1968, Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. was assassinated in Memphis, where he had gone to stand with sanitation workers demanding their dream: the right to bargain collectively for a voice at work and a better life for themselves and their children. Now those rights are under attack in Wisconsin, Ohio, Indiana and dozens of other states, and women’s interests are at stake.

Can you join us on April 4 by participating in an event on your community? You can find events near you on this interactive map.  http://action.nwlc.org/site/R?i=uMLiBmcwTSFoVeogJPQeMg..

Attacks on public employees’ rights to collectively bargain directly threaten working women and the vital public services they provide. Most people who work for state and local governments are women: nurses, teachers and others serving our communities. And collective bargaining helps ensure that these women have decent wages, benefits, and working conditions. For more information on why the right to collectively bargain is a women’s rights issue, check out our fact sheet.

Please join us in solidarity on April 4: We Are One.

Sincerely,

Emily J. Martin

Vice President and General Counsel

National Women’s Law Center

AFSCME


Featured Action

A Day To Stand In Solidarity – April 4 Nationwide Actions

On April 4, 1968, Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. was assassinated in Memphis. He had gone there to stand with AFSCME sanitation workers demanding their dream: The right to bargain collectively for a voice at work and a better life. Join us to make April 4, 2011 a day to stand in solidarity with working people in Wisconsin, Ohio, Indiana and dozens of other states where right-wing corporate politicians are trying to take away the rights Dr. King gave his life for. It’s a day to say, “We are one.” Check out our We Are One video and go to http://www.we-r-1.org for more details.

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Standing Up For Public Service

Public service workers from coast to coast are facing attacks against their jobs, their salaries, their pensions and their basic rights as workers. View our Standing Up For Public Service website to find out how AFSCME members are fighting back.

Wisconsin: photos, videos, and recent news

Ohio: photos, videos, and recent news

Indiana: photos and news

Michigan, Florida, New York and across the nation: photos, videos, events, our blog, and news clips

Greenline, the AFSCME Blog

Iowa House Leadership Afraid to Talk to Citizens

In a show of solidarity with Iowa working families, former Speaker Pat Murphy (D-Dubuque) blasted Iowa’s Republican House Leadership Friday after they shut down the Capitol switchboard.

In Ohio, State of the Worker Address

Workers across Ohio delivered the State of the Worker Address, a rebuttal to Gov. John Kasich’s first State of the State Address.

Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire’s 100-Year Anniversary Reminds Us Why Unions Are Necessary

AFSCME reflects on another historic moment in labor history, the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire in New York City.

Thousands Turn Out For “We Are Indiana” Rally Supporting Unions

Legislation that could roll back private-sector union rights and limit collective bargaining rights for teachers sparked a massive rally at the state Capitol in Indianapolis.

Origins of the So-Called Pension Crisis

Noted economist Dean Baker has written what could be best described as the definitive explanation of the state of public-sector pension plans.

AFSCME Across the Nation

AFSCME Activists Nationwide Support Wisconsin Public Service Workers

OH: Workers Protest Plan to End Collective Bargaining

NY: In this New Video, AFSCME Members Speak Out for a “Better New York for All”

WI: AFSCME Members Lobby Lawmakers to Preserve Rights

AFSCME News

McEntee: Governor Walker Is “Tearing Wisconsin Apart”

Statement of AFSCME President McEntee in response to Gov. Walker’s anti-union rights bill that was rammed through the state senate.

AFSCME Calls on Speaker Boehner to Stop Using Violent Metaphors and Demonizing Public Employees

Citing a recent interview given by House Speaker John Boehner, AFSCME Pres. McEntee called on the Speaker to stop using violent metaphors and demonizing public employees.