1789 – The first U.S. congressional act on administering oaths became law.

ERIC - Institute of Education Sciences
The First Act of Congress: Administering Oaths for a New Kind of Government
Potter, Lee Ann
Social Education, v68 n7 p430 Nov-Dec 2004
In the spring of 1789, the first Congress faced a daunting task. Although the newly adopted Constitution provided a blueprint for the new government, Congress needed to enact legislation that would ensure a smooth transition from the Articles of Confederation and lay the groundwork for a strong national government, while simultaneously protecting individual liberties. Between March (actually April, when they reached a quorum) and late September, the first session of the first Congress met in New York City. The Congress proposed and debated numerous bills, and ultimately passed twenty-six acts. The very first act, signed into law by President George Washington on June 1, 1789, was “An Act to regulate the Time and Manner of administering certain Oaths.” The Constitution contained an oath of office only for the president. Article II, Section 1, directed the president to take the following oath before entering office: “I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the Office of President of the United States, and will to the best of my Ability, preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of the United States.” This is the same oath that every president since George Washington has taken. In this issue’s “Teaching With Documents,” a regular feature of “Social Education,” teaching suggestions include providing students with a copy of the featured document and its transcription, asking a volunteer to read it aloud while the others follow along, and leading a class discussion with the following questions: (1) What type of document is this? (2) When was it created? (3) Who created it? and (4) What was the purpose of the document? Other suggestions include asking students what issues they think a brand new government might face.
National Science Teachers Association, 1840 Wilson Boulevard, Arlington, VA 22201-3000. Web site: http://www.nsta.org.

The 35th Anniversary of the MOVE Bombing … Philly on May 13th

Here are 11 things you should know about the MOVE Philadelphia bombing

Police, firemen and workers sort through the rubble resulting from May 13 fire, destroying 61 homes on Osage Avenue in Philadelphia, Penn., on Wednesday, May 16, 1985.

On May 13, 1985, a bomb was dropped on a row house in Philadelphia, unleashing a relentless fire that eventually burned down 61 houses, killed 11 people (including five children), and injured dozens.

The fire department stood by idly. The Philadelphia Police Department did the same. The fire raged on, swallowing up home after home until more than 200 were without shelter.

It’s a shameful part of recent American history that’s somehow been buried under 31 years and other destructions that have fallen on the city of Philadelphia. NewsOne decided to take a trip back in time to explore what happened the day America bombed its own people.

– The MOVE Organization is a Philadelphia-based Black liberation group that preached revolution and advocated the return to a natural lifestyle. They lived communally and vowed to lead a life uninterrupted by the government, police, or technology. They were passionate supporters of animal rights. Members adopted vegan diets and the surname “Africa.” Often times they would engage in public demonstrations related to issues they deemed important.

– MOVE did, however, have a past with the police. Since inception in 1972, the group was looked at as a threat to the Philadelphia Police Department. In 1978, police raided their Powelton Village homes and as a result, one police officer died after being shot in the head. Nine MOVE members were arrested, charged with third-degree murder, and sent to prison. They argued that the police officer was shot in the back of his head on his way into the home, challenging the claim that he was shot by members inside the house. Eventually the group relocated to their infamous house on 6221 Osage Street.

– There are differing reports about the group and how troublesome they actually were. According to the AP, neighbors complained about their house on Osage, which was barricaded with plywood and allegedly contained a multitude of weapons. It has been said that the group built a giant wooden bunker on the roof and used a bullhorn to “scream obscenities at all hours of the night,” angering those living in nearby row houses. Eventually, they turned to city officials for help, which put into motion the events of May 13, 1985.

– On that day, armed police, the fire department, and city officials gathered at the house in an attempt to clear it out and arrest MOVE members who had been indicted for crimes like parole violation and illegal possession of firearms. When police tossed tear gas canisters into the home, MOVE members fired back. In turn, the police discharged their guns.

– Eventually, a police helicopter flew over the home and dropped two bombs on the row house. A ferocious blaze followed.

– Witnesses and MOVE members say that when members started to run out of the burning structure to escape a fiery death, police continued to fire their weapons.

– The fire department delayed putting out the flames. After the blaze, they claimed they didn’t want to put their men in harm’s way, because MOVE members were still firing their guns. But MOVE members and witnesses say the wait was deliberate.

– In the end, 11 people, including MOVE’s founder John Africa, were dead. Five children died in the home.

– This is the only child survivor (see picture below). His name is Birdie Africa, but it was later changed to Michael Ward. He ran out of the burning house naked and covered in flames. He survived his third-degree burns and went on to live a normal life, although he was scarred forever by the lifelong burns on his abdomen, arms, and face.

– Michael Ward was found dead on Friday, Sept. 20, 2013 in the jacuzzi aboard a cruise ship in the Caribbean. He was on vacation with his family. Initial autopsy reports say he drowned.

– In the end, no one from the city government was criminally charged.

SOURCE: APPhilly, Independent research | PHOTO CREDIT: Getty

image: AP  and vpr.org

1869 – Thomas Edison received a patent for his electric voting machine.

Thomas Edison with his Cylinder Phonograph

Thomas A. Edison filed for a patent on his cylinder phonograph 140 years ago this month. The inventor accumulated more than 1,000 U.S. patents, but always considered the phonograph to be his favorite invention.

Photo courtesy of the Library of Congress.

Voting Machines On June 1, 1869, Thomas Edison received his first patent for improvements to “electrographic vote-recording.” A demonstration of the device to Congress by one of Edison’s investors failed to win support for its use in U.S. elections. In 1892, Lockport, NY, was first to use an electronic voting machine in an American election.