1947 – U.S. President Truman signed The National Security Act. The act created the National Security Council, the Department of Defense, the Central Intelligence Agency and the Joint Chiefs of Staff.

Central Intelligence Agency

A Brief Overview of the Act

The act:

  • Established the National Security Council (NSC)
  • Merged the War and Navy departments into the National Military Establishment (NME) headed by the secretary of defense, and
  • Recognized the US Air Force as an independent service from the Army.

Initially each of the three service secretaries maintained quasi-cabinet status, but the act was amended on August 10, 1949 to formalize their subordination to the secretary of defense. At the same time the NME was renamed the Department of Defense.

In the intelligence field, the act ratified President Truman’s creation (in 1946) of the post of Director of Central Intelligence (DCI), and transformed the Central Intelligence Group into the statutory Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), the nation’s first peacetime intelligence agency.

Most of these provisions prompted sharp debates in the Executive Branch and Congress. Several compromises were struck in order for the act to win passage. These compromises would have far-reaching implications for the Intelligence Community.

President Truman’s Goals:

Unify the Armed Services & Reform Intelligence

President Truman’s main goal in guiding this legislation through Congress was to modernize the nation’s “antiquated defense setup” by unifying the armed services under a civilian chief. Intelligence reform was a secondary goal, and the White House kept the bill’s passages on intelligence as brief as possible to ensure that its details did not hamper prospects for military unification. This tactic almost backfired.

When the president sent his bill forward in February 1947, the brevity of its intelligence provisions caused Congressional scrutiny. More than a few members of Congress read the bill with concerns about its proposed concentration of military power.

They also eventually debated almost every word of its bill’s intelligence section. Some members argued that the DCI and the new CIA could become a menace to civil liberties–an “American Gestapo.” Administration witnesses alleviated this concern by reminding Congress that the Agency’s authorized mission would be foreign intelligence.

The Act Establishes the Role for CIA

When lawmakers finished editing the section on intelligence, however, the language managed to summarize and ratify most of the crucial arrangements already made by the Truman administration. The National Security Act would:

  • authorize a Central Intelligence Agency (but leave the powers and duties of the Agency’s head for a separate bill to enumerate);
  • that CIA would be an independent agency under the supervision of the NSC;
  • that CIA  would conduct both analysis and clandestine activities, but would have no policymaking role and no law enforcement powers;
  • and, finally, that the DCI would be confirmed by the Senate and could be either a civilian or an officer on detail from his home service.

The legislation gave America something new; no other nation had structured its foreign intelligence establishment in quite the same way.

The CIA would be an independent, central agency, overseeing strategic analysis and coordinating clandestine activities abroad. It would not be a controlling agency. The CIA would both rival and complement the efforts of the departmental intelligence organizations. This prescription of coordination without control guaranteed competition as the CIA and the departmental agencies pursued common targets, but it also fostered a healthy exchange of views and abilities.

What the act did not do, however, was almost as important as what it did. It helped ensure that American intelligence remained a loose confederation of agencies lacking strong direction from either civilian or military decisionmakers. President Truman had endorsed the Army and Navy view that “every department required its own intelligence.” The National Security Act left this concession in tact. Only later would the Defense Intelligence Agency be created to coordinate military intelligence.


Separation Between Foreign & Domestic Intelligence

The act also made a crucial concession to members concerned about threats to civil liberties. It drew a bright line between foreign and domestic intelligence and assigning these realms, in effect, to the CIA and the Federal Bureau of Investigation, respectively. The CIA, furthermore, would have no “police, subpoena, or law enforcement powers,” according to the act.

The importance of the National Security Act cannot be overstated. It was a central document in U.S. Cold War policy and reflected the nation’s acceptance of its position as a world leader.

Historical Document
Posted: Jul 31, 2008 10:37 AM
Last Updated: Apr 30, 2013 12:06 PM

Women Voters of America …what else do you need? #OurLivesMatter

…. yep, just another rant!

Healthcare: Thing is, Republicans need to realize that their constituents &non voters have had a chance to experience ACA aka Obamacare! Though some Governors stepped in and denied their fellow man the expansion of Medicaid.

Yes, some folks didn’t like #ACA aka Obamacare, but that was because President Obama’s name was attached to it and when you think about a person’s name as being the only reason you would deny your family of maybe living longer? Well …it’s just beyond my understanding. I get it, folks are claiming they suffer from higher premiums and the costs are outrageous, some love Obamacare, others confess it saved their lives; remember some republicans said this. I think those who suffered need to have a professional check their applications for errors, misinformation and of course their state’s version of #ACA probably is the real problem and yes there are victims of not just the insurance industry but their states’ policies because they need serious health care reviews not the implementation of a means tests, preconditions, more restrictions, age taxes or anything giving the 1% a gift tax cut off the backs of sick people.

Most feel, if #trump gets his way, we will not only get less health care but we will be in line at urgent care centers or the ER more and end up paying more for the health care rendered on levels that put you and yours at risk of losing everything, making those republican #deathpanels a reality. The idea that the House voted and passed a health care bill called it a win and celebrated out loud was offensive and laughable because it didn’t pass in the Senate, they want to start from scratch and now it’s on the back burner again.

I don’t know about you, but IMO, health care should be a right, not a privilege, but year after year we continue to see a panel of republican men making decisions for women who more often than not take care of all the family health care issues, including for the men in their lives. so, vote for the democratic party this November because it’s obvious we need to end the era #trump and move to make him a one-term president!

Vote for the Democratic Party …yes #ACA needs tweaks but this republican like the bill(RomneyCare) is worthy of saving … these “guys” want to kill it

~ Nativegrl77

1944 U.S. Army begins to desegregate training camp facilities

1944 – The U.S. Army began desegregating its training camp facilities. Black platoons were then assigned to white companies in the first step toward battlefield integration.

However, the official order integrating the armed forces didn’t come until July 26, 1948, signed by President Harry Truman.

Executive Order 9981 is an executive order issued on July 26, 1948, by President Harry S. Truman. It abolished discrimination “on the basis of racecolorreligion or national origin” in the United States Armed Forces. The executive order led to the end of segregation in the services during the Korean War (1950-1953).[1]