June 13, 1866 ~ July 9,1868 ~ the 14th amendment to the US constitution was passed in Congress

14th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution: Civil Rights (1868)

Things that Congress can do but has yet to do while Republicans are in Control

Passed by Congress June 13, 1866, and ratified July 9, 1868, the 14th amendment extended liberties and rights granted by the Bill of Rights to former slaves.

Following the Civil War, Congress submitted to the states three amendments as part of its Reconstruction program to guarantee equal civil and legal rights to black citizens. The major provision of the 14th amendment was to grant citizenship to “All persons born or naturalized in the United States,” thereby granting citizenship to former slaves. Another equally important provision was the statement that “nor shall any state deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.” The right to due process of law and equal protection of the law now applied to both the Federal and state governments.

On June 16, 1866, the House Joint Resolution proposing the 14th amendment to the Constitution was submitted to the states.

On July 28, 1868, the 14th amendment was declared, in a certificate of the Secretary of State, ratified by the necessary 28 of the 37 States, and became part of the supreme law of the land.

Congressman John A. Bingham of Ohio, the primary author of the first section of the 14th amendment, intended that the amendment also nationalize the Federal Bill of Rights by making it binding upon the states. Senator Jacob Howard of Michigan, introducing the amendment, specifically stated that the privileges and immunities clause would extend to the states “the personal rights guaranteed and secured by the first eight amendments.” Historians disagree on how widely Bingham’s and Howard’s views were shared at the time in the Congress, or across the country in general. No one in Congress explicitly contradicted their view of the Amendment, but only a few members said anything at all about its meaning on this issue. For many years, the Supreme Court ruled that the Amendment did not extend the Bill of Rights to the states.

Not only did the 14th amendment fail to extend the Bill of Rights to the states; it also failed to protect the rights of black citizens. One legacy of Reconstruction was the determined struggle of black and white citizens to make the promise of the 14th amendment a reality. Citizens petitioned and initiated court cases, Congress enacted legislation, and the executive branch attempted to enforce measures that would guard all citizens’ rights. While these citizens did not succeed in empowering the 14th amendment during the Reconstruction, they effectively articulated arguments and offered dissenting opinions that would be the basis for change in the 20th century.

(Information excerpted from Teaching With Documents [Washington, DC: The National Archives and Records Administration and the National Council for the Social Studies, 1998] p. 40.)



1965 – The Voting Rights Act was signed by U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson.

See the source imageVoting Rights Act. The Voting Rights Act of 1965, signed into law by President Lyndon B. Johnson, aimed to overcome legal barriers at the state and local levels that prevented African Americans from exercising their right to vote as guaranteed under the 15th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution. The Voting Rights Act is considered one of the most far-reaching pieces of civil rights legislation in U.S. history.


1965 – U.S. President Johnson signed into law Social Security Act that established Medicare and Medicaid. It went into effect the following year.

On July 30, 1965, President Lyndon B. Johnson signed into law legislation that established the Medicare and Medicaid programs. For 50 years, these programs have been protecting the health and well-being of millions of American families, saving lives, and improving the economic security of our nation.


CMS’ program history
Medicare & Medicaid

On July 30, 1965, President Lyndon B. Johnson signed into law the bill that led to the Medicare and Medicaid. The original Medicare program included Part A (Hospital Insurance) and Part B (Medical Insurance). Today these 2 parts are called “Original Medicare.” Over the years, Congress has made changes to Medicare:

  • More people have become eligible.
    For example, in 1972, Medicare was expanded to cover the disabled, people with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) requiring dialysis or kidney transplant, and people 65 or older that select Medicare coverage.
    More benefits, like prescription drug coverage, have been offered.
    At first, Medicaid gave medical insurance to people getting cash assistance. Today, a much larger group is covered:
    Low-income families
    Pregnant women
    People of all ages with disabilities
    People who need long-term care
    States can tailor their Medicaid programs to best serve the people in their state, so there’s a wide variation in the services offered.
    Medicare Part D Prescription Drug benefit
    The Medicare Prescription Drug Improvement and Modernization Act of 2003 (MMA) made the biggest changes to the Medicare in the program in 38 years. Under the MMA, private health plans approved by Medicare became known as Medicare Advantage Plans. These plans are sometimes called “Part C” or “MA Plans.”
    The MMA also expanded Medicare to include an optional prescription drug benefit, “Part D,” which went into effect in 2006.
    Children’s Health Insurance Program
    The Children’s Health Insurance Program (CHIP) was created in 1997 to give health insurance and preventive care to nearly 11 million, or 1 in 7, uninsured American children. Many of these children came from uninsured working families that earned too much to be eligible for Medicaid. All 50 states, the District of Columbia, and the territories have CHIP plans.
    Affordable Care Act
    The 2010 Affordable Care Act (ACA) brought the Health Insurance Marketplace, a single place where consumers can apply for and enroll in private health insurance plans. It also made new ways for us to design and test how to pay for and deliver health care. Medicare and Medicaid have also been better coordinated to make sure people who have Medicare and Medicaid can get quality services.
    50th Anniversary – Medicare & Medicaid Event: 50 Years, Millions Of Healthier Lives


GOP Lawmakers Who Spent July 4 In Moscow | grassrootsdempolitics.com

See the source imageThe Month of July is almost over and we still have no idea why these 8 Americans who live, trade, and invest …using taxpayer money would do this … shouldn’t there be some sort of hearing … AND who paid for this trip, how many trips and why were they there on the 4th of July?

This has been swept under a dirty rug … please ask your members or Congress to clarify what this group of GOP was doing in Russia on July 4, 2018

~ Nativegrl77

Invest in our fight to #StopSinclair!

Sinclair Media Group has the potential to be more dangerous than Fox News. We’re possibly days away from an FCC decision that may allow Sinclair’s acquisition of the Tribune Media Company, which would allow Sinclair to pump their right-wing propaganda masquerading as trusted local news into 72% of U.S. homes. Even worse, Sinclair could use their propaganda machine to tip the scales for conservative candidates in elections across the country this year. We can’t allow this to happen. Will you invest in our campaign against Sinclair today?

To stop Sinclair from negatively impacting key 2018 elections, we need to move fast. If we can push local businesses that rely on Black dollars to pull advertising from Sinclair stations, we can force Sinclair to return editorial control to trusted local journalists. While Sinclair might be a huge company, each local station relies on local advertisers to stay profitable. If we can get key local leaders and advertisers to fight Sinclair, we can stop the flow of right-wing propaganda ahead of these key elections.

We need your support now to help us fight back against this right-wing takeover of our local media. With your help we’ll:

    • Support and work with news directors actively fighting back against Sinclair
    • Pay for researchers to identify the most important congressional races where Sinclair might have undue influence and push businesses that rely on Black dollars to pull advertising from those stations
    • Empower communities to organize against Sinclair stations that will have significant impacts on key elections this year. This is a critical election year and we can’t afford to lose seats in Congress because of Sinclair’s propaganda

The Sinclair threat goes beyond influencing elections. We also know that Black people are disproportionately impacted when local news gets pushed further to the right. In a report commissioned by Color Of Change, we found that local and national media consistently use anti-Black stereotypes, such as being on welfare or lacking family stability, in their reporting.

We have research, numbers and past big wins on our side. We can beat Sinclair’s big merger. But only if we have the funds to do so. If you care about keeping Sinclair’s pro-Trump, anti-Black news out of our living rooms, invest $1 (or more) to keep us going today.

Change Of Color