1958 – Chad


Coat of arms of Chad.svg

A large measure of autonomy was conceded under the constitutional law of 1957, when the first territorial government was formed by Gabriel Lisette, a West Indian who had become the leader of the Chad Progressive Party (PPT).

An autonomous republic within the French Community was proclaimed in November 1958, and complete independence in the restructured community was attained on Aug. 11, 1960.

The country’s stability was endangered by tensions between the Black and often Christian populations of the more economically progressive southwest and the conservative, Muslim, nonblack leadership of the old feudal states of the north, and its problems were further complicated by Libyan involvement.

Source: britannica.com

Support the Commutation of Life sentence for Brown


Pennsylvania Board of Pardons

Support the Commutation of Life sentence for Bobbie Brown in…

Marquia BHarrisburg, PA, United States

In Pennsylvania, Bobbie is seeking the commutation of his life sentence and your support toward him receiving a second chance. 

At the time of the crime, Bobbie was seated in his vehicle, facing his passenger when a man approached from behind and began to rapidly strike him through an open window. Bobbie reached for his weapon in an effort to reduce the unforeseen yet active threat; he lost consciousness due to the rush of strikes to his face, to later regain consciousness and see a man laying on the ground. In a daze, Bobbie drove to safety, made contact with, and later turned himself into authorities, volunteering all evidence in support of a fair and thorough investigation. The evidence included a record of threatening voice messages from his assailant detailing his manhunt and nonstop search for Bobbie coupled with multiple first-hand witness testimonies of a series of attempts made by Bobbie such as engaging community leaders in efforts to amicably de-escalate tensions over the years. In 2007, Bobbie was sentenced to first degree murder and life imprisonment.

Since his conviction, there has been an increased awareness toward socioeconomic disadvantages within Black and Brown communities and unjust sentencing alongside a shift in orientation to what actually constitutes self-defense. For 15 years, Bobbie has upheld that his actions were of protection and solely the result of a reasonable expectation of immediate danger while taking accountability for the loss of life. Through the appellate process, the courts have shown favor and acknowledged:

  • The trial lawyer’s admission of inadequate defense 
  • The absence of an area within the trial proceedings encompassed to determine an understanding of the full impact and consequences of a plea
  • An error in jury instruction used to orient jurors to the trial and assist the jury in hearing the case for proper evaluation

In addition to the numerous already received letters from community members attesting to Bobbie’s good character, high regard for responsibility and his rehabilitation, we ask for your signature in this petition; enlisting your support for the Pennsylvania Board of Pardons to grant the commutation of Bobbie’s life sentence to a sentence of life on parole and opportunity for a successful reintegration into society

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History: Citizenship Thrust Upon Natives by U.S. Congress – In memory


Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division, Washington, D.C.

Native History: Citizenship Thrust Upon Natives by U.S. Congress

This Date in Native History: On June 2, 1924, Congress granted United States citizenship to Native Americans born in the United States. But even after the Indian Citizenship Act passed, some Native Americans weren’t allowed to vote because the right to vote was governed by state law.

Until the Indian Citizenship Act, some had married white men to become citizens, or served in the military. As the National Park Service says, the act was a move by the federal government to absorb Indians into mainstream American life.

But David E. Wilkins points out in his column “Dismembering Natives: The Violence Done by Citizenship Fights” Natives did not ask for citizenship, it was “thrust upon them without their consent” and “they retained citizenship in their own tribal nations.”

RELATED: Dismembering Natives: The Violence Done by Citizenship Fights

As Wilkins says though, Natives have only been citizens in their tribes, states, and the U.S. for 52 years. “Interestingly, many states were long reluctant to act in kind and only when Utah allowed the Native vote in 1962 were Indians finally considered citizens by every state,” Wilkins said.

Many Indigenous Peoples have always seen governance differently than their white counterparts. Duane Champagne discusses that in his column “Indigenous and 21st Century Nationalisms.”

“While nation-states prefer to recognize only individual citizens, Indigenous Peoples want to be recognized as the holistic nations with powers of self-government and territorial rights,” Champagne says.

IMO- Our history is riddled with such hypocrisy, untruths, inaccurate information, and nonsense …who landed here first? it wasn’t a European or anyone with pale skin ~Nativegrl77

RELATED: Indigenous and 21st Century Nationalisms