Cyclosporiasis is an intestinal illness caused by the protozoan (unicellular) parasite Cyclospora cayetanensis.
Cyclosporiasis can occur at any time of the year, but most of the reported cases and outbreaks in the United States occur during the spring and summer months, particularly from May through August. About half of all U.S. cases that are not associated with a known outbreak occur in people with a recent history of travel outside the United States and Canada.
Cyclosporiasis is acquired by eating food or drinking water that is contaminated with human feces. In the United States, cyclosporiasis outbreaks have been reported almost every year since the mid-1990s and have been associated with various types of imported fresh produce.
Symptoms of cyclosporiasis begin an average of seven days after ingestion of sporulated oocysts (eggs), the infective form of the parasite. The most common symptom is watery diarrhea. Other common symptoms include loss of appetite, nausea, abdominal cramps, weight loss, fatigue, and myalgia (muscle pain); vomiting and low-grade fever also may occur.
Cyclospora infection is diagnosed by examining stool. A special test is required to detect the parasite, so health care professionals should specifically request testing for Cyclospora. Patients might need to provide up to three stool samples collected on different days because even people who show symptoms might not shed enough oocysts in their stool to show up in laboratory testing.
Cyclosporiasis is treated with a common antibiotic. If the infection is not treated, symptoms can last for several weeks to a month or more. There is no vaccine for cyclosporiasis. People can lower the risk of getting cyclosporiasis by avoiding food or water that may have been contaminated with feces. Rinsing fresh produce can reduce—but may not eliminate—the chances of getting cyclosporiasis. Treating food or water with chlorine or iodine is unlikely to kill Cyclospora oocysts. Safe food and water habits are recommended when traveling
Who were the early women candidates for president? Hillary Clinton in her 2008 run for the Democratic nomination for US President came the closest so far that any woman has come to winning the nomination of a major political party in the United States. But Clinton is not the first woman to run for United States President, and not even the first to run for a major party’s nomination. Here’s a list of the female presidential candidates, arranged chronologically by each woman’s first campaign for the office. The list is current through the 2012 election; women running in 2016 will be added after that election’s over.
Who was the first woman to run for president?
What woman ran for US president first? And which women have run since?
Victoria Woodhull was the first woman to run for president in the United States. Frederick Douglass was nominated as Vice President, but there’s no record that he accepted. Woodhull was also known for her radicalism as a woman suffrage activist and her role in a sex scandal involving noted preacher of the time, Henry Ward Beecher. More »
National Equal Rights Party: 1884, 1888Belva Lockwood, an activist for voting rights for women and for African Americans, was also one of the earliest women lawyers in the United States. Her campaign for president in 1884 was the first full-scale national campaign of a woman running for president. More »
Democratic Party, 1920Laura Clay, a Southern women’s rights advocate who supported state suffrage amendments so that the Southern states could limit suffrage to white women, had her name placed in nomination at the 1920 Democratic National Convention, to which she was a delegate. More »
Surprise Party: 1940Comedian and actress, partner with husband George Burns on the George Burns and Gracie Allen Show, Grace Allen ran for president in 1940 as a publicity stunt. She was not on the ballot — it was, after all, a stunt — but she did get write-in votes.
Republican Party: 1964She was the first woman to have her name placed in nomination for president at a major political party’s convention. She was also the first woman elected to serve in both the House of Representatives and the Senate. More »
Communist Party: 1968Nominated by the (tiny) Communist Party in 1968, Charlene Mitchell was the first African American woman nominated for president in the United States. She was on the ballot in two states in the general election, and received less than 1,100 votes nationally.
Democratic Party: 1972A civil rights and women’s rights advocate, Shirley Chisholm ran for the Democratic nomination in 1972 with the slogan, “Unbought and Unbossed.” Her name was placed in nomination at the 1972 convention, and she won 152 delegates. More »
Patsy Takemoto Mink
Democratic Party: 1972She was the first Asian American to seek nomination as president by a major political party. She was on the Oregon primary ballot in 1972. She was at that time a member of the U.S. Congress, elected from Hawaii.
Democratic Party: 1972One of three women to seek the Democratic Party nomination for president in 1972, Abzug was at the time a member of Congress from the West Side of Manhattan. More »
Linda Osteen Jenness
Socialist Workers Party: 1972Underage for the Constitution’s requirements for the presidency, Linda Jenness ran against Nixon in 1972 and was on the ballot in 25 states. In three states where Jenness was not accepted for the ballot because of her age, Evelyn Reed was in the presidential slot. Their vote total was less than 70,000 nationally.
“The Sunburnt Queen is an extraordinary narrative. The writing’s fresh immediacy brings history to life.”—The Sunday Independent (South Africa)
In the late 1730s, the local inhabitants of South Africa found a seven-year-old girl called Bessie, washed ashore on the beach of the Wild Coast. Bessie was brought up by them, growing into a young woman of legendary beauty and wisdom, and marrying one of the most important tribal chiefs in the area.
Using oral histories and written accounts by early missionaries, Hazel Crampton traces the extraordinary story of Bessie and the turbulent history of the Eastern Cape.
James Mercer Langston Hughes was born February 1, 1902, in Joplin, Missouri. His parents divorced when he was a young child, and his father moved to Mexico. He was raised by his grandmother until he was thirteen, when he moved to Lincoln, Illinois, to live with his mother and her husband, before the family eventually settled in Cleveland, Ohio. It was in Lincoln that Hughes began writing poetry. After graduating from high school, he spent a year in Mexico followed by a year at Columbia University in New York City. During this time, he held odd jobs such as assistant cook, launderer, and busboy. He also travelled to Africa and Europe working as a seaman. In November 1924, he moved to Washington, D. C. Hughes’s first book of poetry, The Weary Blues, (Knopf, 1926) was published by Alfred A. Knopf in 1926. He finished his college education at Lincoln University in Pennsylvania three years later. In 1930 his first novel, Not Without Laughter, (Knopf, 1930) won the Harmon gold medal for literature.
Hughes, who claimed Paul Lawrence Dunbar, Carl Sandburg, and Walt Whitman as his primary influences, is particularly known for his insightful, colorful portrayals of black life in America from the twenties through the sixties. He wrote novels, short stories and plays, as well as poetry, and is also known for his engagement with the world of jazz and the influence it had on his writing, as in his book-length poem Montage of a Dream Deferred (Holt, 1951). His life and work were enormously important in shaping the artistic contributions of the Harlem Renaissance of the 1920s. Unlike other notable black poets of the period—Claude McKay, Jean Toomer, and Countee Cullen—Hughes refused to differentiate between his personal experience and the common experience of black America. He wanted to tell the stories of his people in ways that reflected their actual culture, including both their suffering and their love of music, laughter, and language itself.
The critic Donald B. Gibson noted in the introduction to Modern Black Poets: A Collection of Critical Essays (Prentice Hall, 1973) that Hughes “differed from most of his predecessors among black poets . . . in that he addressed his poetry to the people, specifically to black people. During the twenties when most American poets were turning inward, writing obscure and esoteric poetry to an ever decreasing audience of readers, Hughes was turning outward, using language and themes, attitudes and ideas familiar to anyone who had the ability simply to read . . . Until the time of his death, he spread his message humorously—though always seriously—to audiences throughout the country, having read his poetry to more people (possibly) than any other American poet.”
Langston Hughes died of complications from prostate cancer in May 22, 1967, in New York City. In his memory, his residence at 20 East 127th Street in Harlem has been given landmark status by the New York City Preservation Commission, and East 127th Street has been renamed “Langston Hughes Place.”
In addition to leaving us a large body of poetic work, Hughes wrote eleven plays and countless works of prose, including the well-known “Simple” books: Simple Speaks His Mind, (Simon & Schuster, 1950); Simple Stakes a Claim, (Rinehart, 1957); Simple Takes a Wife, (Simon & Schuster, 1953); and Simple’s Uncle Sam (Hill and Wang, 1965). He edited the anthologies The Poetry of the Negro and The Book of Negro Folklore, wrote an acclaimed autobiography, The Big Sea (Knopf, 1940), and cowrote the play Mule Bone (HarperCollins, 1991) with Zora Neale Hurston.
Collected Poems of Langston Hughes (Knopf, 1994) The Panther and the Lash: Poems of Our Times (Knopf, 1967) Ask Your Mama: 12 Moods for Jazz (Knopf, 1961) Montage of a Dream Deferred (Holt, 1951) One-Way Ticket (Knopf, 1949) Fields of Wonder (Knopf, 1947) Freedom’s Plow (Musette Publishers, 1943) Shakespeare in Harlem (Knopf, 1942) The Dream Keeper and Other Poems (Knopf, 1932) Scottsboro Limited (The Golden Stair Press, 1932) Dear Lovely Death (Troutbeck Press, 1931) Fine Clothes to the Jew (Knopf, 1927) The Weary Blues (Knopf, 1926)
Remember Me to Harlem: The Letters of Langston Hughes and Carl Van Vechten, 1925-1964 (Knopf, 2001) The Arna Bontemps-Langston Hughes Letters (Dodd, Mead, 1980) Good Morning, Revolution: Uncollected Social Protest Writings by Langston Hughes (Hill, 1973) Simple’s Uncle Sam (Hill and Wang, 1965) Something in Common and Other Stories (Hill and Wang, 1963) Tambourines to Glory (John Day, 1958) Simple Stakes a Claim (Rinehart, 1957) I Wonder as I Wander (Rinehart, 1956) Laughing to Keep From Crying (Holt, 1952) Simple Takes a Wife (Simon & Schuster, 1953) Simple Speaks His Mind (Simon & Schuster, 1950) The Ways of White Folks (Knopf, 1934) Not Without Laughter (Knopf, 1930)
Collected Works of Langston Hughes, vol. 5: The Plays to 1942: Mulatto to The Sun Do Move (University of Missouri Press, 2000) The Political Plays of Langston Hughes (Southern Illinois University Press, 2000) Mule Bone (HarperCollins, 1991) Five Plays by Langston Hughes (Indiana University Press, 1963)
Poetry in Translation
Cuba Libre (Anderson & Ritchie, 1948) Selected Poems of Gabriela Mistral (Indiana University Press, 1957)