Tag Archives: Woodrow Wilson

Why the Founder of Mother’s Day Turned Against It : by Sarah Pruitt

a repost

Beginning in the 1850s, Ann Reeves Jarvis of West Virginia started Mothers’ Day Work Clubs in order to teach women proper child-care techniques and sanitation methods. In the years following the Civil War, these same clubs became a unifying force for a country ripped apart by conflict. In 1868, Jarvis and other women organized a Mothers Friendship Day, when mothers gathered with former soldiers of both the Union and Confederacy to promote reconciliation. After Ann Reeves Jarvis died in 1905, it was her daughter Anna Jarvis who would work tirelessly to make Mother’s Day a national holiday.


Anna Jarvis, who had no children of her own, conceived of Mother’s Day as an occasion for honoring the sacrifices individual mothers made for their children.

In May 1908, she organized the first official Mother’s Day events at a church in her hometown of Grafton, West Virginia, as well as at a Wanamaker’s department store in Philadelphia, where she lived at the time. Jarvis then began writing letters to newspapers and politicians pushing for the adoption of Mother’s Day as an official holiday. By 1912, many other churches, towns and states were holding Mother’s Day celebrations, and Jarvis had established the Mother’s Day International Association. Her hard-fought campaign paid off in 1914, when President Woodrow Wilson signed a bill officially establishing the second Sunday in May as Mother’s Day.

Jarvis’ conceived of of Mother’s Day as an intimate occasion—a son or daughter honoring the mother they knew and loved—and not a celebration of all mothers. For this reason, she always stressed the singular “Mother’s” rather than the plural. She soon grew disillusioned, as Mother’s Day almost immediately became centered on the buying and giving of printed cards, flowers, candies and other gifts. Seeking to regain control of the holiday she founded, Jarvis began openly campaigning against those who profited from Mother’s Day, including confectioners, florists and other retailers. She launched numerous lawsuits against groups using the name Mother’s Day, and eventually spent much of her sizeable inheritance on legal fees.

In 1925, when an organization called the American War Mothers used Mother’s Day as an occasion for fundraising and selling carnations, Jarvis crashed their convention in Philadelphia and was arrested for disturbing the peace. Later, she even attacked First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt for using Mother’s Day as an occasion to raise money for charity. By the 1940s, Jarvis had disowned the holiday altogether, and even actively lobbied the government to see it removed from the calendar. Her efforts were to no avail, however, as Mother’s Day had taken on a life of its own as a commercial goldmine. Largely destitute, and unable to profit from the massively successful holiday she founded, Jarvis died in 1948 in Philadelphia’s Marshall Square Sanitarium.

The sad history of Mother’s Day founder Anna Jarvis has done nothing to slow down the popularity—and commercialism—of the holiday. According to an annual spending survey conducted by the National Retail Federation, Americans will spend an average of $168.94 on Mother’s Day in 2013, a whopping 11 percent increase from 2012. In total, Mother’s Day spending is expected to reach $20.7 billion this year. In addition to the more traditional gifts (ranging from cards, flowers and candy to clothing and jewelry), the survey showed that an unprecedented 14.1 percent of gift-givers plan to buy their moms high-tech gadgets like smartphones and tablets.


a new low ~~ back to the future


by history.com

Isolationism refers to America’s longstanding reluctance to become involved in European alliances and wars.  Isolationists held the view that America’s perspective on the world was different from that of European societies and that America could advance the cause of freedom and democracy by means other than war.

American isolationism did not mean disengagement from the world stage.  Isolationists were not averse to the idea that the United States should be a world player and even further its territorial, ideological and economic interests, particularly in the Western Hemisphere.

The colonial period

Pilgrims landing at Plymouth

The isolationist perspective dates to colonial days.  The colonies were populated by many people who had fled from Europe, where there was religious persecution, economic privation and war.  Their new homeland was looked upon as a place to make things better than the old ways.  The sheer distance and rigors of the voyage from Europe tended to accentuate the remoteness of the New World from the Old.  The roots of isolationism were well established years before independence, notwithstanding the alliance with France during the War for Independence.

Thomas Paine crystallized isolationist notions in his work Common Sense, which presents numerous arguments for shunning alliances.  Paine’s tract exerted so much political influence that the Continental Congress strove against striking an alliance with France and acquiesced only when it appeared probable that the war for independence could not be won without one.

George Washington in his Farewell Address placed the accent on isolationism in a manner that would be long remembered:

“The great rule of conduct for us, in regard to foreign nations, is in extending our commercial relations, to have with them as little political connection as possible.  Europe has a set of primary interests, which to us have none, or a very remote relation.  Hence she must be engaged in frequent controversies the causes of which are essentially foreign to our concerns.  Hence, therefore, it must be unwise in us to implicate ourselves, by artificial ties, in the ordinary vicissitudes of her politics, or the ordinary combinations and collisions of her friendships or enmities.”

Washington was promulgating a perspective that was already venerable and accepted by many.  The United States terminated its alliance with France, after which America’s third president, Thomas Jefferson, admonished in his inaugural address, “peace, commerce, and honest friendship with all nations, entangling alliances with none.”

The 19th century

The United States remained politically isolated all through the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th, an unusual feat in western history.  Historians have attributed the fact to a geographical position at once separate and far removed from Europe.

During the 1800s, the United States spanned North America and commenced to piece together an empire in the Caribbean and the Pacific — without departing from the traditional perspective.  It fought the War of 1812, the Mexican War, and the Spanish-American War without joining alliances or fighting in Europe.

The isolationist point of view was still viable in 1823 when President James Monroe gave voice to what would later be termed the Monroe Doctrine, “In the wars of the European powers, in matters relating to themselves, we have never taken part, nor does it comport with our policy, so to do.”

Nevertheless, pressures were mounting abroad that would undercut and demolish that policy near the mid-20th century.  The advent of German and Japanese expansionism would threaten and later nearly snuff out the contented aloofness enjoyed by the United States.  The United States’ occupation of the Philippines during the Spanish-American War thrust U.S. interests into the far western Pacific Ocean — Imperial Japan’s sphere of interest.  Such improved transportation and communication as steamships, undersea cable, and radio linked the two continents.  The growth of shipping and foreign trade slowly enhanced America’s world role.

There also were basic changes at home.  The historic ascendancy of urban-based business, industry, and finance, and the sidelining of rural and small-town America — the bastion of isolationism — contributed to its eventual demise.

World War I

Germany’s unfettered submarine warfare against American ships during World War I provoked the U.S. into abandoning the neutrality it had upheld for so many years.  The country’s resultant participation in World War I against the Central Powers marked its first major departure from isolationist policy.  When the war ended, however, the United States was quick to leave behind its European commitment.  Regardless of President Woodrow Wilson‘s efforts, the Senate repudiated the Treaty of Versailles that ended the war, and the United States failed to become a member of the League of Nations.

German sub sinks US ship   Indeed, isolationism would persist for a few more decades.  During the 1920s, American foreign affairs took a back seat.  In addition, America tended to insulate itself in terms of trade.  Tariffs were imposed on foreign goods to shield U.S. manufacturers.

America turned its back on Europe by restricting the number of immigrants permitted into the country.  Until World War I, millions of people, mostly from Europe, had come to America to seek their fortune and perhaps flee poverty and persecution.  Britons and Irishmen, Germans and Jews constituted the biggest groups.  In 1921 the relatively liberal policy ended and quotas were introduced.  By 1929 only 150,000 immigrants per year were allowed in.

During the 1920s and 1930s, the preponderance of Americans remained opposed to enmeshment in Europe’s alliances and wars.  Isolationism was solid in hinterland and small-town America in the Midwest and Great Plains states, and among Republicans.  It claimed numerous sympathizers among Irish- and German-Americans.  William Jennings Bryan of Nebraska, Robert M. La Follette of Wisconsin, and George W. Norris of Nebraska were among western agrarian progressives who argued fervently against involvement.  Assuming an us-versus-them stance, they castigated various eastern, urban elites for their engagement in European affairs.

World War II

The year 1940 signaled a final turning point for isolationism.  German military successes in Europe and the Battle of Britain prompted nationwide American rethinking about its posture toward the war.  If Germany and Italy established hegemony in Europe and Africa, and Japan swept East Asia, many believed that the Western Hemisphere might be next.  Even if America managed to repel invasions, its way of life might wither if it were forced to become a garrison state.  By the autumn of 1940, many Americans believed it was necessary to help defeat the Axis — even if it meant open hostilities.

FDR signs declaration of war against Japan

Many others still backed the noninterventionist America First Committee in 1940 and 1941, but  isolationists failed to derail the Roosevelt administration‘s plans to aid targets of Axis aggression with means short of war.   Most Americans opposed any actual declaration of war on the Axis countries, but  everything abruptly changed when Japan naval forces sneak-attacked Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941.  Germany and Italy declared war on the United States four days later.  America galvanized itself for full-blown war against the Axis powers.

The demise of isolationism

The isolationist point of view did not completely disappear from American discourse, but never again did it figure prominently in American policies and affairs.  Countervailing tendencies that would outlast the war were at work.  During the war, the Roosevelt administration and other leaders inspired Americans to favor the establishment of the United Nations (1945), and following the war, the threat embodied by the Soviet Union under Joseph Stalin dampened any comeback of isolationism.

The postwar world environment, in which the United States played a leading role, would change with the triumph of urban industry and finance, expanded education and information systems, advanced military technology, and leadership by internationalists.  A few leaders would rise to speak of a return to America’s traditional policies of nonintervention, but in reality, traditional American isolationism was obsolete.

 Don’t let Republicans make America great again or take Americans back to the ole’days by engaging in Isolationism… America has always been GREAT


by Nativegrl77beaseedforchangestickersGREEN

After having watched and listened to “the media” as well as “politicians who supported Weapons of Mass destruction Bush” and the folks i call “Doves” a seemingly huge group of voters who didn’t seem to understand chess diplomacy or the responsibilities of a great power, but hey that is just my opinion.  We must all thank goodness we have the right to have different views and can voice them, but sadly in this era of trump these rights we, quite frankly, take for granted are now being shredded away each and every day with a pen seemingly full of revenge takes action. I really do believe we have come full circle and so has isolationism … from print , online news, pundits, tv hosts to a whole lot of politicians that prefer to forget about the Universal Norm against the use Chemical Weapons that was created over 100yrs ago … lest we talk about provocative words, torture or nukes .  I cannot say it enough, contrary to what we are hearing on the airwaves by what some call trumpies, we should all believe in doing the right thing for our country  NOT doing, saying or being stupid knowing that our US military are serving all over the world and could be at risk . We should all expect a #WorldCoalition to engage in the effort to create peace so all can prosper, be healthy, experience equality, be educated and fight for the greater good. If you have kept up with the latest executive orders, actions or comments by #teamtrump it’s clear that we have a lot of work to do … make the media accountable,challenge those who represent trump on camera,mobilize for #election2018 because it matters because it will kill the trifecta and understand that there is no such thing as “alternate facts”

Stay tuned in because strike or NOT,  we are seeing an attempt at getting rid of or a reduction in WMD … just knowing hearing  Russia and Syria stated that they have them is amazing.  The journey toward a No Nuke/No Chemical Weapons World will be long, but one that the World must support and get involved in, if not now when … for the next generation

Be a Seed for Change