Emancipation Proclamation: The 13th Amendment ~ Feb. 1, 1865


February 1, 1865

National Archives social media intern Anna Fitzpatrick.

Joint Resolution Proposing the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, 01/31/1865–01/31/1865; Enrolled Acts and Resolutions of Congress, 1789–2008; General Records of the United States Government, 1778–2006, Record Group 11; National Archives (National Archives Identifier: 1408764)

The news of the Emancipation Proclamation was greeted with joy, even though it did not free all the slaves. Because of the limitations of the proclamation, and because it depended on a Union military victory, President Lincoln recognized that the Emancipation Proclamation would have to be followed by a constitutional amendment in order to abolish slavery.

After the Senate passed a bill for an amendment in April 1864, but the House of Representatives did not, Lincoln suggested that the bill be taken up by the Republican Party in its 1864 platform for the upcoming Presidential elections.

His efforts met with success when the House passed the bill in January 1865.  On February 1, 1865, President Abraham Lincoln approved the Joint Resolution of Congress submitting the proposed amendment to the state legislatures. The necessary number of states ratified it by December 6, 1865.

The 13th Amendment to the United States Constitution formally abolished slavery in the United States. It provides that ”Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.”
The struggle for complete freedom was far from finished even with the 13th Amendment. Two more amendments were added to the Constitution. Ratified in 1868, the 14th Amendment increased the liberties and rights granted by the Bill of Rights to former slaves. Two years later the 15th Amendment was ratified, giving African American men the right to vote. The Emancipation Proclamation helped make these rights and liberties available for newly freed people, as it was one of the first steps towards freedom for former slaves.

The 13th Amendment and its history are featured in the online exhibit “Our Documents.”
The story of the creation of the 13th Amendment is featured in “The Meaning and Making of Emancipation,” a free eBook created by the National Archives. You can read it on your iPad, iPhone, Nook, or other electronic device.

Pieces of History

January 3, 2013 by hilary parkinson, posted in – Civil War, Presidents

A blog of the U.S. National Archives

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Passed by Congress on January 31, 1865, and ratified on December 6, 1865, the 13th amendment abolished slavery in the United States.

The 13th amendment, which formally abolished slavery in the United States, passed the Senate on April 8, 1864, and the House on January 31, 1865. On February 1, 1865, President Abraham Lincoln approved the Joint Resolution of Congress submitting the proposed amendment to the state legislatures. The necessary number of states ratified it by December 6, 1865. The 13th amendment to the United States Constitution provides that “Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.”

In 1863 President Lincoln had issued the Emancipation Proclamation declaring “all persons held as slaves within any State, or designated part of a State, the people whereof shall then be in rebellion against the United States, shall be then, thenceforward, and forever free.” Nonetheless, the Emancipation Proclamation did not end slavery in the nation. Lincoln recognized that the Emancipation Proclamation would have to be followed by a constitutional amendment in order to guarantee the abolishment of slavery.

The 13th amendment was passed at the end of the Civil War before the Southern states had been restored to the Union and should have easily passed the Congress. Although the Senate passed it in April 1864, the House did not. At that point, Lincoln took an active role to ensure passage through congress. He insisted that passage of the 13th amendment be added to the Republican Party platform for the upcoming Presidential elections. His efforts met with success when the House passed the bill in January 1865 with a vote of 119–56.
With the adoption of the 13th amendment, the United States found a final constitutional solution to the issue of slavery. The 13th amendment, along with the 14th and 15th, is one of the trio of Civil War amendments that greatly expanded the civil rights of Americans.

ourdocuments.gov

Black Wall Street NEIGHBOURHOOD, TULSA, OKLAHOMA ~ Black History


Greenwood, Tulsa: Black Wall Street before the Tulsa Race Massacre

Black Wall Street, former byname of the Greenwood neighbourhood in TulsaOklahoma, where in the early 20th century African Americans had created a self-sufficient prosperous business district. The term Black Wall Street was used until the Tulsa race riot of 1921. The name has also been applied more generally to districts of African American high economic activity.

Historically, African Americans worked mainly as servants in Tulsa, where they developed their own insular society with its own economy. Black businesses clustered on the strip of land that would become Greenwood in 1905, when African Americans acquired the land. Businesses included a grocery store and a barbershop. Doctors and real estate agents opened their own businesses. The neighbourhood also had its own newspaper and schools.

Black Wall Street was thriving at the time of the Tulsa race riot of 1921. The riot, however, took a heavy financial toll on African Americans. Many homes and businesses were destroyed. Moreover, following the riot, residents of Greenwood met resistance to rebuild. Nonetheless, African American professionals and entrepreneurs slowly began to rebuild. Lawyers offered legal assistance to African Americans jailed in the riots and helped them sue the city for compensation. A massive reconstruction of the district was completed in 1922, only one year after the riot and without the help of the greater Tulsa community. Eighty businesses were opened by the end of 1922.

The community thrived throughout the first half of the century, even during the Great Depression. In addition to the usual businesses, the area formerly known as Black Wall Street contained a business college and the reopened offices of the African American newspaper. Many middle- and upper-class African Americans lived there. In addition, it provided the backbone for greater civic and political participation by Tulsa’s African American residents.

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By the end of the 1950s, however, more than half of the businesses had closed. Desegregation allowed the entry of businesses owned by whites, while increasing numbers of African Americans in the community invested in entities outside Greenwood.

By 1961, 90 percent of African American income in Tulsa was spent outside of the Greenwood district.

The creation of the Greenwood Cultural Center, formed in the late 1970s, attracted tourism to the area. In addition to addressing African American culture and working on creating more harmonious race relations in the city, the cultural centre was charged with preserving Black Wall Street. It was also responsible for building the 1921 Black Wall Street Memorial in the name of the people who had died in the riot.

This article was most recently revised and updated by André Munro, Assistant Editor.

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    Tulsa race riot of 1921, race riot that began on May 31, 1921, in Tulsa, Oklahoma, and was one of the most severe incidents of racial violence in U.S. history. Lasting for two days, the riot left somewhere between 30 and 300 people…

1966 Barbados Independence from Britain


Written By: Anthony De Vere PhillipsWoodville K. MarshallChristopher Stewart Jackson
Last Updated: Oct 3, 2019 See Article History

Barbados, an island nation in the Caribbean situated about 100 miles (160 km) east of the Windward Islands, had gained internal self-rule in 1961 and achieved its full independence from Britain on this day in 1966.

The geographic position of Barbados has profoundly influenced the island’s history and culture and aspects of its economic life. Barbados is not part of the nearby archipelago of the Lesser Antilles, although it is usually grouped with it. The island is of different geologic formation; it is less mountainous and has less variety in plant and animal life. As the first Caribbean landfall from Europe and Africa, Barbados has functioned since the late 17th century as a major link between western Europe (mainly Great Britain), eastern Caribbean territories, and parts of the South American mainland. The island was a British possession without interruption from the 17th century to 1966, when it attained independence. Because of its long association with Britain, the culture of Barbados is probably more British than is that of any other Caribbean island, though elements of the African culture of the majority population have been prominent. Since independence, cultural nationalism has been fostered as part of the process of nation-building.

for more info … britannica.com

the idea that Barbados and other Caribbean locations are great for travellers yet, those going back and forth probably don’t think about the Caribbean other than grabbing land or a vacay … It just seems like those who visit frequently land grab should pay a little extra for upkeep ..yes, the government needs a whole lot of guidance

Tulsa race riot of 1921 — May 30- June 1st — 99 yrs ago


See the source image

On May 30, 1921, Dick Rowland, a young African American shoe shiner, was accused of assaulting a white elevator operator named Sarah Page in the elevator of a building in downtown Tulsa. The next day the Tulsa Tribune printed a story saying that Rowland had tried to rape Page, with an accompanying editorial stating that a lynching was planned for that night. That evening mobs of both African Americans and whites descended on the courthouse where Rowland was being held. When a confrontation between an armed African American man, there to protect Rowland, and a white protestor resulted in the death of the latter, the white mob was incensed, and the Tulsa riot was thus ignited.

Over the next two days, mobs of white people looted and set fire to African American businesses and homes throughout the city. Many of the mob members were recently returned World War I veterans trained in the use of firearms and are said to have shot African Americans on sight. Some survivors even claimed that people in airplanes dropped incendiary bombs.

When the riot ended on June 1, the official death toll was recorded at 10 whites and 26 African Americans, though many experts now believe at least 300 people were killed. Shortly after the riot there was a brief official inquiry, but documents related to the riot disappeared soon afterward. The event never received widespread attention and was long noticeably absent from the history books used to teach Oklahoma schoolchildren.

Resources:

images:

thechocolatevoice.com    officialblackwallstreet.com

 

African American History … 1619 – 1989


SlaveryMapped

1619- First Blacks Arrive in Jamestown
1638- First Slaves Arrive in Massachusetts
1664- Black-White Marriages Outlawed
1688- Quakers Oppose Slavery
1712- First Slave Revolt
1770- Black Killed in Boston Massacre
1773- First Black Church Founded
1775- Society of Abolition of Slavery Established
1776- Blacks and the Revolutionary War
1777- Vermont Abolishes Slavery
1787- Northwest Ordinance
1793- First Fugitive Slave Law
1793- Cotton Gin
1800- Slave Uprising Near Richmond
1807- Slave Importation Banned
1820- Missouri Compromise
1821- Liberia Founded
1829- Walker’s Appeal
1831- First Negro Convention
1831- “Liberator” Published
1831- Nat Turner Rebellion
1839- Slave Revolt Aboard Ship
1843- Call for Revolt
1847- Douglass Publishes “North Star”
1849- Harriet Tubman Escapes
1850- Compromise of 1850
1852- Uncle Tom’s Cabin Published
1857- Dred Scott Decision
1859- John Brown Raid
1860- Lincoln Elected
1862- Blacks Enlist in Union Army
1863- Emancipation Proclamation
1863- Draft Riots in New York
1865- Thirteenth Amendment Ratified
1865- Freedmen’s Bureau Created
1867- Reconstruction Act Passed
1867- Howard University Founded
1870- First Black Senator
1875- Civil Rights Bill Passed
1877- Reconstruction Ends
1877- First Black Graduates from West Point
1881- Tuskegee Institute Founded
1883- Civil Rights Act Unconstitutional
1890- Blacks Excluded from Southern Politics
1896- Segregation Legal
1898- Blacks Serve in Spanish-American War
1904- Booker T Washington, Black Leader
1904- Niagara Movement Begun
1908- NAACP Founded
1917- Great Migration Begins
1917- Race Riots in Illinois
1917- Blacks and World War I
1920- Universal Negro Imporvement Association Meets
1925- Brotherhood of Rail Porters
1931- Scottsboro Trial
1936- Jesse Owens Wins Four Gold Medals
1936- NAACP Sues for Equal Pay
1940- First Black General
1941- FDR Forbids Discrimination
1943- Race Riots in Harlem
1944- Adam Clayton Powell Elected to Congress
1944- All White Primary Illegal
1946- Truman Appoints Panel
1947- Jackie Robinson Becomes First Black Major Leaguer
1948- Military Desegregated
1950- Ralph Bunche Receives Nobel Prize
1953- Washington’s Restaurants Desegregated
1954- Schools Ordered to Desegregate
1955- Bus Boycott Begins
1957- Voting Act of 1957
1960- Widespread Protest Throughout South
1961- Freedom Riders
1962- James Meredith Enters University of Mississippi
1963- March On Washington
1964- Rioting in US Cities
1964- Civil Rights Workers Slain
1964- King Receives Nobel Peace Prize
1964- Selma to Montgomery March
1965- Malcolm X Assassinated
1965- Los Angeles Riots
1966- James Meredith Shot
1967- First Black Senator Since Reconstruction
1967- First Black Supreme Court Justice
1968- Martin Luther King Jr. Assassinated
1974- Samuel Gravely Becomes the First Black Admiral in US Navy
1976- Tom Bradley, Mayor of Los Angeles
1977- Young, Ambassador to UN
1984- Jesse Lackson Runs for President
1987- Powell, Security Advisor to President
1989- Powell, Chairman of Joint Chiefs of Staff

and now you can read possibly get the #1619Project to find out how your School can include this into your curriculum

~Nativergrl77