This day in history, June 10: President John F. Kennedy signs into law Equal Pay Act of 1963, aimed at eliminating wage disparities based on gender

Slide 8 of 13: President Kennedy hands out pens during a ceremony at the White House today in which he signed into law a bill aimed at assuring women of paychecks equal to those of men doing the same work. Left to right: Esther Peterson, Assistant Secretary of Labor; Evelyn Christensen, National Board of YWCA; Rep. Leonor Sullivan (D-Missouri); Vice President Lyndon Johnson; Mrs. Joseph Willen, National Council of Jewish Women; Dr. Minnie Miles, National Federation of Business and Professional Women's Clubs (partially hidden); Miss Margaret Mealey, National Council of Catholic Women; Andrew Biemiller, AFL-CIO Official; Rep. Edith Green (D-Oregon); and Mrs. Garlyn Davis.

The Equal Pay Act, signed in to law by President John F. Kennedy on June 10, 1963, was one of the first federal anti-discrimination laws that addressed wage differences based on gender. The Act made it illegal to pay men and women working in the same place different salaries for similar work.

During the first decades of the 20th century, women made up less 24% of the U.S. workforce. During World War II, however, labor shortages brought large numbers of women in to the workplace and by 1945, women made up 37% of the civilian workforce. Because women had traditionally earned less than men for doing similar work, male workers feared that this growing source of cheap labor would replace them or lower their wages. As men began to join the military and women began to take over their civilian jobs, unions started to advocate for equal pay. They felt that this would prevent employers from undercutting future wages for men. In addition, the National War Labor Board endorsed the idea of equal pay for equal work. They issued a General Order supporting equal pay for men and women for work that was of “comparable quality and quantity.”

P.G. Harris, US Employment Service War Manpower Commission, 1942-1945

color poster of woman with drill and red head wrap
World War II Employment PosterP.G. Harris, US EmWorld War II Employment PosterP.G. Harris, US Employment Service War Manpower Commission, 1942-1945ployment Service War World War II Employment PosterP.G. Harris, US Employment Service War Manpower Commission, 1942-1945Manpower Commission, 1942-1945

World War II Employment Poster

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1760 NY passes 1st effective law regulating practice of medicine

Quackery persisted through the centuries in Europe and found its way to the American colonies, where the earliest steps to regulate the profession were taken.

On this day, June 10, in 1760 New York City passed the first law regulating medical practice, mandating examining and licensing of prospective doctors, and penalizing unlicensed physicians.