on this day 7/27 1974 – The U.S. Congress asked for impeachment procedures against President Richard Nixon. 


214 – At the Battle of Bouvines in France, Philip Augustus of France defeated John of England.

1245 – Frederick II was deposed by a council at Lyons after they found him guilty of sacrilege.

1663 – The British Parliament passed a second Navigation Act, which required all goods bound for the colonies be sent in British ships from British ports.

1689 – Government forces defeated the Scottish Jacobites at the Battle of Killiecrankie.

1694 – The Bank of England received a royal charter as a commercial institution.

1775 – Benjamin Rush began his service as the first Surgeon General of the Continental Army.

1784 – “Courier De L但merique” became the first French newspaper to be published in the United States. It was printed in Philadelphia, PA.

1777 – The marquis of Lafayette arrived in New England to help the rebellious American colonists fight the British.

1778 – The British and French fleets fought to a standoff in the first Battle of Ushant.

1789 – The Department of Foreign Affairs was established by the U.S. Congress. The agency was later known as the Department of State.

1804 – The 12th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution was ratified. With the amendment Electors were directed to vote for a President and for a Vice-President rather than for two choices for President.

1866 – Cyrus Field successfully completed the Atlantic Cable. It was an underwater telegraph from North America to Europe.

1909 – Orville Wright set a record for the longest airplane flight. He was testing the first Army airplane and kept it in the air for 1 hour 12 minutes and 40 seconds.

1914 – British troops invaded the streets of Dublin, Ireland, and began to disarm Irish rebels.

1918 – The Socony 200 was launched. It was the first concrete barge and was used to carry oil.

1921 – Canadian biochemist Frederick Banting and associates announced the discovery of the hormone insulin.

1940 – Bugs Bunny made his official debut in the Warner Bros. animated cartoon “A Wild Hare.”

1944 – U.S. troops completed the liberation of Guam.

1947 – The World Water Ski Organization was founded in Geneva, Switzerland.

1953 – The armistice agreement that ended the Korean War was signed at Panmunjon, Korea.

1955 – The Allied occupation of Austria ended.

1964 – U.S. President Lyndon Johnson sent an additional 5,000 advisers to South Vietnam.

1965 – In the U.S., the Federal Cigarette Labeling and Advertising Act was signed into law. The law required health warnings on all cigarette packages. 

1967 – U.S. President Johnson appointed the Kerner Commission to assess the causes of the violence in the wake of urban rioting. 

1974 – The U.S. Congress asked for impeachment procedures against President Richard Nixon.

1980 – The deposed shah of Iran, Muhammad Riza Pahlavi, died in a hospital near Cairo, Egypt.

1984 – Pete Rose passed Ty Cobb痴 record for most singles in a career when he got his 3,503rd base hit.

1993 – IBM’s new chairman, Louis V. Gerstner, Jr., announced an $8.9 billion plan to cut the company’s costs.

1995 – The Korean War Veterans Memorial was dedicated in Washington, DC, by U.S. President Clinton and South Korean President Kim Young-sam.

1999 – The U.S. space shuttle Discovery completed a five-day mission commanded by Air Force Col. Eileen Collins. It was the first shuttle mission to be commanded by a woman. 

2006 – Intel Corp introduced its Core 2 Duo microprocessors.

How … A Bill Becomes a Law


How a Bill Becomes a Law

When performing legislative research, it is important to understand the legislative process. The numerous steps that result in a bill becoming a law are described in this 24th edition of “How Our Laws Are Made.”

the original

EWG’S HEALTHY HOME TIPS: TIP 8 – GET RID OF THAT (TOXIC) DUST


 

EWGDust bunnies aren’t just unsightly and sometimes allergenic; they contain toxic chemicals. Why? The many chemicals in and around your homes wind up in your indoor dust when they migrate from home products and come in through open doors and windows and on your shoes. But the good news is it’s pretty easy to keep those dust bunnies at bay — and reduce your family’s toxic exposures, too. Read on to learn:

  1. Why your household dust is toxic
  2. How toxic dust can affect your family
  3. Tips to remove dust safely and effectively
  4. How to create less toxic dust in the first place

 

  1. WHY YOUR HOUSEHOLD DUST IS TOXIC

    Every home has a little dust — and its own unique “dust load,” based on a variety of factors like where you live, what you cook, if you smoke, the climate, and how many people — and animals — live there. Ordinary house dust is a complex mixture of generally yucky stuff — pet dander, fungal spores, tiny particles, soil tracked in on your feet, carpet fibers, human hair and skin, you name it. It’s also a place where harmful chemicals are found. One recent study by the Silent Spring Institute identified 66 endocrine-disrupting compounds in household dust tests, including flame retardants, home-use pesticides, and phthalates.

    The chemicals in your dust originate from both inside and outside your house:

    1. Products inside your house “shed” chemicals over time — furniture, electronics, shoes, plastics, fabrics and food, among other things.
    2. Outdoor pollutants enter on your shoes and through open and cracked windows and doors.

    Once inside, the contaminants in indoor dust degrade more slowly (if at all) than they would outside in the environment where moisture and sunlight typically break them down.

    One type of toxic chemical commonly found in household dust is chemical flame retardants (aka PBDEs). As highly flammable synthetic materials have replaced less-combustible natural materials, PBDEs have been added to thousands of everyday products, including computers, TVs and furniture — among many others. EWG conducted tests in 2004 that revealed the surprising degree to which flame retardant chemicals escape from consumer products and settle in household dust (from degrading foam or the plastics in electronic items).

  2. HOW TOXIC DUST CAN AFFECT YOUR FAMILY

    When you’re exposed to certain toxic chemicals — even at very low doses — your health can be adversely affected. Dust is simply another way for the toxic chemicals in your house to reach your body.

    Young children are of special concern because their developing bodies are more vulnerable to toxic exposures, and they ingest or inhale more dust than adults since they — and their toys — spend lots of time on or very near the floor. They also put dusty hands and toys in their mouths often. Scientists once thought children got lead poisoning by literally chewing on windowsills. We’ve since learned that it’s actually caused by their normal play behaviors because contaminants like lead stick around in house dust.

    In the case of fire retardants, which are commonly found in household dust, scientists have found that exposure to minute doses of toxic PBDEs at critical points in a child’s development can damage reproductive systems and cause deficits in motor skills, learning, memory and hearing, as well as changes in behavior. Read EWG’s 2004 report about toxic fire retardants in household dust.

    A note about allergies. Dust is a well-known allergen — with or without the toxic chemicals. If you’re allergic to dust, there are preventive steps you can take to reduce your contact with it. The Mayo Clinic has a list of lifestyle and home remedies.

  3. TIPS TO REMOVE DUST SAFELY AND EFFECTIVELY

    Careful cleaning is a simple way to get rid of toxic dust. Here’s how:

    • Vacuum frequently and use a vacuum fitted with a HEPA (high efficiency particulate air) filter. These vacuums are more efficient at trapping small particles and will likely remove contaminants and other allergens from your home that a regular vacuum would recirculate into the air. Change the filter to keep it working well, and don’t forget to vacuum the stuffed furniture (get under those couch cushions)!
    • Wet mop uncarpeted floors frequently to prevent dust from accumulating (dry mopping can kick up dust that simply resettles). Buy wooden furniture or furniture filled with down, wool, polyester, or cotton as these are unlikely to contain added fire retardant chemicals.
    • Wipe furniture with a wet or microfiber cloth. Microfiber cloths work well because their smaller fibers cling to the particles. If you don’t have a microfiber cloth, wet a cotton cloth — it grabs and holds the dust better than a dry one. Skip synthetic sprays and wipes when you dust — they only add unwanted chemicals.
    • Caulk and seal cracks and crevices to prevent dust from accumulating in hard-to-reach places.
    • Equip your forced-air heating or cooling system with high-quality filters and change them frequently to keep them working well.
    • Keep electronic equipment dust-free by damp dusting it frequently; this is a common source of chemical fire retardants in dust.
    • Pay special attention to places where little kids crawl, sit and play. They live closest to our floors and as a result tend to be more exposed to those toxic dust bunnies.
    • If you’re dust sensitive, consider asking someone else to do the dusty cleaning.
  4. CREATE DUST THAT’S LESS TOXIC IN THE FIRST PLACE

    You can reduce the amount of toxic chemicals that wind up in your household dust by bringing fewer toxic chemicals into the house in the first place. We suggest that you:

    • Leave your shoes at the door and use a natural doormat. Shoes are a common way we bring outdoor pollutants inside.
    • Inspect foam products made between 1970 and 2005 — they’re likely to contain PBDEs.Replace anything with a ripped cover or foam that is misshapen and breaking down. If you can’t replace these items, try to keep the covers intact and clean them more frequently. Some examples of household foam products are: stuffed/upholstered furniture, nursing pillows, padded high-chair seats, portable crib mattresses, baby changing pads, and chair cushions.
    • Choose home electronics without PBDEs. There are manufacturers who no longer use them in some products — ask before you buy and support companies that have publicly committed to going PBDE-free, like: Acer, Apple, Eizo Nanao, LG Electronics, Lenovo, Matsushita, Microsoft, Nokia, Phillips, Samsung, Sharp, Sony-Ericsson, and Toshiba.
    • Stick to products made with natural fibers that are naturally fire resistant and may contain fewer chemicals — like wood furniture, cotton, down and wool.
    • Clean up quickly and thoroughly when you finish a home improvement project, since these can involve dust (from sanding or drilling) and toxic products (like lead, PCBs and fire retardants).
    • Consider a high efficiency “HEPA-filter” air cleaner, which may also reduce contaminants that become dust in your house.

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