on this day 3/16 1964 – U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson submitted a $1 billion war on Poverty program to Congress.


1190 – The Crusaders began the massacre of Jews in York, England.

1521 – Portuguese navigator Ferdinand Magellan reached the Philippines. He was killed the next month by natives.

1527 – The Emperor Babur defeated the Rajputs at the Battle of Kanvaha in India.

1621 – Samoset walked into the settlement of Plymouth Colony, later Plymouth, MA. Samoset was a native from the Monhegan tribe in Maine who spoke English.

1802 – The U.S. Congress established the West Point Military Academy in New York.

1836 – The Republic of Texas approved a constitution.

1850 – The novel “The Scarlet Letter,” by Nathaniel Hawthorne, was published for the first time.

1871 – The State of Delaware enacted the first fertilizer law.

1882 – The U.S. Senate approved a treaty allowing the United States to join the Red Cross.

1883 – Susan Hayhurst graduated from the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. She was the first woman pharmacy graduate.

1907 – The world’s largest cruiser, the British Invincible was completed at Glasgow.

1908 – China released the Japanese steamship Tatsu Maru.

1909 – Cuba suffered its first revolt only six weeks after the inauguration of Gomez.

1913 – The 15,000-ton battleship Pennsylvania was launched at Newport News, VA.

1915 – The Federal Trade Commission began operation.

1917 – Russian Czar Nicholas II abdicated his throne.

1918 – Tallulah Bankhead made her New York acting debut with a role in “The Squab Farm.”

1926 – Physicist Robert H. Goddard launched the first liquid-fuel rocket.

1928 – The U.S. planned to send 1,000 more Marines to Nicaragua.

1935 – Adolf Hitler ordered a German rearmament and violated the Versailles Treaty.

1939 – Germany occupied the rest of Czechoslovakia.

1945 – Iwo Jima was declared secure by the Allies. However, small pockets of Japanese resistance still existed.

1946 – Algerian nationalist leader Ferhat Abbas was freed after spending a year in jail.

1946 – India called British Premier Attlee’s independence off contradictory and a propaganda move.

1947 – Martial law was withdrawn in Tel Aviv.

1950 – Congress voted to remove federal taxes on oleomargarine.

1964 – Paul Hornung and Alex Karras were reinstated to the NFL after an 11-month suspension for betting on football games.

1964 – U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson submitted a $1 billion war on poverty program to Congress.

1968 – U.S. troops in Vietnam destroyed a village consisting mostly of women and children. The event is known as the My-Lai massacre.

1978 – Italian politician Aldo Moro was kidnapped by left-wing urban guerrillas. Moro was later murdered by the group.

1982 – Russia announced they would halt their deployment of new nuclear missiles in Western Europe.

1984 – Mozambique and South Africa signed a pact banning the support for one another’s internal enemies.

1984 – William Buckley, the CIA station chief in Beirut, was kidnapped by gunmen. He died while in captivity.

1985 – “A Chorus Line” played its 4,000 performance.

1985 – Terry Anderson, an Associated Press newsman, was taken hostage in Beirut. He was released in December 4, 1991.

1987 – “Bostonia” magazine printed an English translation of Albert Einstein’s last high school report card.

1988 – Indictments were issued for Lt. Colonel Oliver North, Vice Admiral John Poindexter of the National Security Council, and two others for their involvement in the Iran-Contra affair.

1988 – Mickey Thompson and his wife Trudy were shot to death in their driveway. Thompson, known as the “Speed King,” set nearly 500 auto speed endurance records including being the first person to travel more than 400 mph on land.

1989 – In the U.S.S.R., the Central Committee approved Gorbachev’s agrarian reform plan.

1989 – The Soviet Communist Party’s Central Committee approved large-scale agricultural reforms and elected the party’s 100 members to the Congress of People’s Deputies.

1993 – In France, ostrich meat was officially declared fit for human consumption.

1994 – Tonya Harding pled guilty in Portland, OR, to conspiracy to hinder prosecution for covering up the attack on her skating rival Nancy Kerrigan. She was fined $100,000. She was also banned from amateur figure skating.

1994 – Russia agreed to phase out production of weapons-grade plutonium.

1995 – NASA astronaut Norman Thagard became the first American to visit the Russian space station Mir.

1998 – Rwanda began mass trials for 1994 genocide with 125,000 suspects for 500,000 murders.

1999 – The 20 members of the European Union’s European Commission announced their resignations amid allegations of corruption and financial mismanagement.

Birthday – James Madison


Image result for james madison

James Madison (1751-1836) the 4th U.S. President was born in Port Conway, Virginia. He played an important role in the formation of the new U.S. Constitution following the American Revolutionary War. During the War of 1812, President Madison was forced to flee Washington, D.C,. while the British attacked and burned the White House and other important public buildings.

archives.gov

history… march 16


1190 – The Crusaders began the massacre of Jews in York, England.

1521 – Portuguese navigator Ferdinand Magellan reached the Philippines. He was killed the next month by natives.

1527 – The Emperor Babur defeated the Rajputs at the Battle of Kanvaha in India.

1621 – Samoset walked into the settlement of Plymouth Colony, later Plymouth, MA. Samoset was a native from the Monhegan tribe in Maine who spoke English.

1802 – The U.S. Congress established the West Point Military Academy in New York.

1836 – The Republic of Texas approved a constitution.

1850 – The novel “The Scarlet Letter,” by Nathaniel Hawthorne, was published for the first time.

1871 – The State of Delaware enacted the first fertilizer law.

1882 – The U.S. Senate approved a treaty allowing the United States to join the Red Cross.

1883 – Susan Hayhurst graduated from the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. She was the first woman pharmacy graduate.

1907 – The world’s largest cruiser, the British Invincible was completed at Glasgow.

1908 – China released the Japanese steamship Tatsu Maru.

1909 – Cuba suffered its first revolt only six weeks after the inauguration of Gomez.

1913 – The 15,000-ton battleship Pennsylvania was launched at Newport News, VA.

1915 – The Federal Trade Commission began operation.

1917 – Russian Czar Nicholas II abdicated his throne.

1918 – Tallulah Bankhead made her New York acting debut with a role in “The Squab Farm.”

1926 – Physicist Robert H. Goddard launched the first liquid-fuel rocket.

1928 – The U.S. planned to send 1,000 more Marines to Nicaragua.

1935 – Adolf Hitler ordered a German rearmament and violated the Versailles Treaty.

1939 – Germany occupied the rest of Czechoslovakia.

1945 – Iwo Jima was declared secure by the Allies. However, small pockets of Japanese resistance still existed.

1946 – Algerian nationalist leader Ferhat Abbas was freed after spending a year in jail.

1946 – India called British Premier Attlee’s independence off contradictory and a propaganda move.

1947 – Martial law was withdrawn in Tel Aviv.

1950 – Congress voted to remove federal taxes on oleomargarine.

1964 – Paul Hornung and Alex Karras were reinstated to the NFL after an 11-month suspension for betting on football games.

1964 – U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson submitted a $1 billion war on poverty program to Congress.

1968 – U.S. troops in Vietnam destroyed a village consisting mostly of women and children. The event is known as the My-Lai massacre.

1978 – Italian politician Aldo Moro was kidnapped by left-wing urban guerrillas. Moro was later murdered by the group.

1982 – Russia announced they would halt their deployment of new nuclear missiles in Western Europe.

1984 – Mozambique and South Africa signed a pact banning the support for one another’s internal enemies.

1984 – William Buckley, the CIA station chief in Beirut, was kidnapped by gunmen. He died while in captivity.

1985 – “A Chorus Line” played its 4,000 performance.

1985 – Terry Anderson, an Associated Press newsman, was taken hostage in Beirut. He was released in December 4, 1991.

1987 – “Bostonia” magazine printed an English translation of Albert Einstein’s last high school report card.

1988 – Indictments were issued for Lt. Colonel Oliver North, Vice Admiral John Poindexter of the National Security Council, and two others for their involvement in the Iran-Contra affair.

1988 – Mickey Thompson and his wife Trudy were shot to death in their driveway. Thompson, known as the “Speed King,” set nearly 500 auto speed endurance records including being the first person to travel more than 400 mph on land.

1989 – In the U.S.S.R., the Central Committee approved Gorbachev’s agrarian reform plan.

1989 – The Soviet Communist Party’s Central Committee approved large-scale agricultural reforms and elected the party’s 100 members to the Congress of People’s Deputies.

1993 – In France, ostrich meat was officially declared fit for human consumption.

1994 – Tonya Harding pled guilty in Portland, OR, to conspiracy to hinder prosecution for covering up the attack on her skating rival Nancy Kerrigan. She was fined $100,000. She was also banned from amateur figure skating.

1994 – Russia agreed to phase out production of weapons-grade plutonium.

1995 – NASA astronaut Norman Thagard became the first American to visit the Russian space station Mir.

1998 – Rwanda began mass trials for 1994 genocide with 125,000 suspects for 500,000 murders.

1999 – The 20 members of the European Union’s European Commission announced their resignations amid allegations of corruption and financial mismanagement.

on-this-day.com

1968 – U.S. troops in Vietnam destroyed a village consisting mostly of women and children. The event is known as the My-Lai massacre.


The Ghosts of My Lai

In the hamlet where U.S. troops killed hundreds of men, women and children, survivors are ready to forgive the most infamous American soldier of the war
By Shaun Raviv, photography by Aaron Joel Santos

for entire article:

Smithsonian Magazine

jim crow… did you know?


Jim Crow Era

After the Civil War, there was a period from about 1865 to 1877 where federal laws offered observable protection of civil rights for former slaves and free blacks; it wasn’t entirely awful to be an African American, even in the South. However, starting in the 1870s, as the Southern economy continued its decline, Democrats took over power in Southern legislatures and used intimidation tactics to suppress black voters. Tactics included violence against blacks and those tactics continued well into the 1900s. Lynchings were a common form of terrorism practiced against blacks to intimidate them. It is important to remember that the Democrats and Republicans of the late 1800s were very different parties from their current iterations. Republicans in the time of the Civil War and directly after were literally the party of Lincoln and anathema to the South. As white, Southern Democrats took over legislatures in the former Confederate states, they began passing more restrictive voter registration and electoral laws, as well as passing legislation to segregate blacks and whites.

It wasn’t enough just to separate out blacks – segregation was never about “separate but equal.” While the Supreme Court naively speculated in Plessy v. Ferguson that somehow mankind wouldn’t show its worst nature and that segregation could occur without one side being significantly disadvantaged despite all evidence to the contrary, we can look back in hindsight and see that the Court was either foolishly optimistic or suffering from the same racism that gripped the other arms of the government at the time. In practice, the services and facilities for blacks were consistently inferior, underfunded, and more inconvenient as compared to those offered to whites – or the services and facilities did not exist at all for blacks. And while segregation was literal law in the South, it was also practiced in the northern United States via housing patterns enforced by private covenants, bank lending practices, and job discrimination, including discriminatory labor union practices.

This kind of de facto segregation has lasted well into our own time.

The era of Jim Crow laws saw a dramatic reduction in the number of blacks registered to vote within the South. This time period brought about the Great Migration of blacks to northern and western cities like New York City, Chicago, and Los Angeles. In the 1920s, the Ku Klux Klan experienced a resurgence and spread all over the country, finding a significant popularity that has lingered to this day in the Midwest. It was claimed at the height of the second incarnation of the KKK that its membership exceeded 4 million people nationwide. The Klan didn’t shy away from using burning crosses and other intimidation tools to strike fear into their opponents, who included not just blacks, but also Catholics, Jews, and anyone who wasn’t a white Protestant.

This time period was not without its triumphs for blacks, even if they came at a cost or if they were smaller than one would have preferred. The NAACP was founded in 1909, in response to the continued practice of lynching and race riots in Springfield, Ill. From the 1920s through the 1930s in Harlem, New York, a cultural, social, and artistic movement took place that was later coined the Harlem Renaissance. Musicians like Duke Ellington and Jelly Roll Morton, writers such as Zora Neale Hurston and Langston Hughes, it-girls like Josephine Baker, and philosophers like W.E.B. Du Bois all had a hand in the Harlem Renaissance and American culture as a whole is richer and better for it. 

Notable Supreme Court Cases:

  • The Slaughter-House Cases, 83 U.S. 36 (1873) – this series of three cases, which were consolidated into one issue, offered the first opinion from the Supreme Court on the 14th Amendment. The court chose to interpret the rights protected by the 14th Amendment as very narrow and this precedent would be followed for many years to come.
  • Civil Rights Cases, 109 U.S. 3 (1883) – in this set of five cases that were consolidated into one issue, a majority of the court held the Civil Rights Act of 1875 unconstitutional against the lone famous dissent of Justice Harlan. The majority argued that Congress lacked authority to regulate private affairs under the 14th Amendment and that the 13th Amendment “merely abolishe[d] slavery”. Segregation in public accommodations would not be declared illegal after these cases until the Civil Rights Act of 1964.
  • Plessy v. Ferguson, 163 U.S. 537 (1896) – this is the case which gave us the phrase “separate but equal” and upheld state racial segregation laws for public facilities. Justice Harlan again offered a lone dissent. These laws would remain in play until 1954.

Selected Library Resources:

Additional Resources:

library.law.howard.edu