1924 – All American Indians were granted U.S. citizenship by the U.S. Congress.


On June 2, 1924, Congress enacted the Indian Citizenship Act, which granted citizenship to all Native Americans born in the U.S. The right to vote, however, was governed by state law; until 1957, some states barred Native Americans from voting. In a WPA interview from the 1930s, Henry Mitchell describes the attitude toward Native Americans in Old Town Maine, one of the last states to comply with the Indian Citizenship Act:

l                                 One of the Indians went over to Old Town once to see some official in the city hall about voting. I don’t know just what position that official had over there, but he said to the Indian, ‘We don’t want you people over here. You have your own elections over on the island, and if you want to vote, go over there.’
Just why the Indians shouldn’t vote is something I can’t understand.

The Life of Henry Mitchell.” Robert Grady, interviewer; Old Town, Maine, ca. 1938-1939. American Life Histories: Manuscripts from the Federal Writers’ Project, 1936 to 1940. Manuscript Division

Native Americans During Mathematics Class, Indian School, Carlisle, Pennsylvania. Frances Benjamin Johnston, photographer, 1901. Johnston (Frances Benjamin) Collection. Prints & Photographs Division

Previously, the Dawes Severalty Act (1887) had shaped U.S. policy towards Native Americans. In accordance with its terms, and hoping to turn Indians into farmers, the federal government redistributed tribal lands to heads of families in 160-acre allotments. Unclaimed or “surplus” land was sold, and the proceeds used to establish Indian schools where Native-American children learned reading, writing, and the domestic and social systems of white America. By 1932, the sale of both unclaimed land and allotted acreage resulted in the loss of two-thirds of the 138 million acres that Native Americans had held prior to the Dawes Act.

In addition to the extension of voting rights to Native Americans, the Secretary of the Interior commissioned the Institute for Government Research to assess the impact of the Dawes Act. Completed in 1928, the Meriam Report External
described how government policy oppressed Native Americans and destroyed their culture and society.

The poverty and exploitation resulting from the paternalistic Dawes Act spurred passage of the 1934 Indian Reorganization Act. This legislation promoted Native-American autonomy by prohibiting allotment of tribal lands, returning some surplus land, and urging tribes to engage in active self-government. Rather than imposing the legislation on Native Americans, individual tribes were allowed to accept or reject the Indian Reorganization Act. From 1934 to 1953, the U.S. government invested in the development of infrastructure, health care, and education, and the quality of life on Indian lands improved. With the aid of federal courts and the government, over two million acres of land were returned to various tribes.

loc.gov

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National Defense Act of 1916


Rep. James Hay of Virginia, Chairman of the House Committee on Military Affairs.

The National Defense Act of 1916, Pub.L. 64–85, 39 Stat. 166, enacted June 3, 1916, was a United States federal law that updated the Militia Act of 1903, which related to the organization of the military, particularly the National Guard. 

The principal change of the act was to supersede provisions as to exemptions.

The 1916 act included an expansion of the Army and the National Guard, the creation of an Officers’ and an Enlisted Reserve Corps, and the creation of a Reserve Officers’ Training Corps.

The President was also given expanded authority to federalize the National Guard, with changes to the duration and the circumstances under which he could call it up. The Army began the creation of an Aviation arm, and the federal government took steps to ensure the immediate availability of wartime weapons and equipment by contracting in advance for production of gunpowder and other material.

Source: wiki

National Doughnut Day


National Doughnut Day started in 1939 as a fundraiser for Chicago’s Salvation Army, honoring the group’s “Lassies” of World War I who served doughnuts to soldiers. Doughnuts dates to mid to the mid 19th century though many places lay claim to inventing the breakfast (or anytime) favorite.

Here are some of the best deals National Doughnut Deals we’ve found. Be sure to check ahead with your favorite spot to make sure they are participating. And don’t forget to check with local doughnut spots – many will be offering their own deals.

Dunkin’ Donuts

Get a free donut with any beverage purchase on Friday, June 3rd.

Krispy Kreme

Get any doughnut free Friday or receive $1 Original Glazed dozen with the purchase of any dozen or 16 count minis. Free doughnut good June 3rd only. It is not available online and limit of one doughnut per person.

Shipley Doughnuts

Get a free glazed Do-Nut from 5 a.m.-noon while supplies last.

Wondering where the best doughnuts in Alabama are? You can see what Yelp reviewers said here.

Note to readers: if you purchase something through one of our affiliate links we may earn a commission.

Sources: al.com and check out the kiro7.com site for Seattle Freebies !