What did you know about Abortion – Before Roe v. Wade


 

The struggle and fight for Choice continues and probably will never end as long as Women are continually disrespected treated as ill-equipped humans who are considered pre-existing conditions legally politically and medically because we can become pregnant … the idea that we don’t have a right to engage in family planning without permission, interrupt a pregnancy due to rape, incest, assault or maybe just maybe we aren’t ready is beyond my scope of understanding. It has become clearer in this era of trump; that some folks in Congress, men and unfortunately some women, don’t seem to get it; which is also beyond my understanding. The rant is real and as an older woman; we should advocate, support and make sure the next generation of women …  all women in this world can make their own decisions with the doctor of their choice as unsafe abortions such as coathangers, so-called abortion doctors and drugs are also a grim  reality that women face at least once a month! We do NOT want women to have to choose those options! We must NOT revisit a time when desperation often resulted in rash decisions and despair which then led to self-destruction as well as death.

~ Nativegrl77

1896 – Booker T. Washington became the first African American to receive an honorary MA degree from Howard University.


June 24, 1896 – Booker T. Washington became the first African American to receive an honorary MA degree from Howard University.Booker T Washington retouched flattened-crop.jpg

Kris Snibbe
Harvard Staff Photographer

For example, on June 24, 1896, educator Booker T. Washington became the first African American to receive an honorary degree from Harvard University.
That evening, during an alumni dinner, Washington said: “In working out our destiny, while the main burden and center of activity must be with us, we shall need, in a large measure in the years that are to come, as we have in the past, the help, the encouragement, the guidance that the strong can give the weak. Thus helped, we of both races in the South soon shall throw off the shackles of racial and sectional prejudice and rise, as Harvard University has risen and as we all should rise, above the clouds of ignorance, narrowness and selfishness, into that atmosphere, that pure sunshine, where it will be our highest ambition to serve MAN, our brother, regardless of race or previous condition.”

Speech cited from Booker T. Washington’s Address at the Alumni Dinner of Harvard University.

news.harvard.edu

jim crow… did you know?


Jim Crow Era

After the Civil War, there was a period from about 1865 to 1877 where federal laws offered observable protection of civil rights for former slaves and free blacks; it wasn’t entirely awful to be an African American, even in the South. However, starting in the 1870s, as the Southern economy continued its decline, Democrats took over power in Southern legislatures and used intimidation tactics to suppress black voters. Tactics included violence against blacks and those tactics continued well into the 1900s. Lynchings were a common form of terrorism practiced against blacks to intimidate them. It is important to remember that the Democrats and Republicans of the late 1800s were very different parties from their current iterations. Republicans in the time of the Civil War and directly after were literally the party of Lincoln and anathema to the South. As white, Southern Democrats took over legislatures in the former Confederate states, they began passing more restrictive voter registration and electoral laws, as well as passing legislation to segregate blacks and whites.

It wasn’t enough just to separate out blacks – segregation was never about “separate but equal.” While the Supreme Court naively speculated in Plessy v. Ferguson that somehow mankind wouldn’t show its worst nature and that segregation could occur without one side being significantly disadvantaged despite all evidence to the contrary, we can look back in hindsight and see that the Court was either foolishly optimistic or suffering from the same racism that gripped the other arms of the government at the time. In practice, the services and facilities for blacks were consistently inferior, underfunded, and more inconvenient as compared to those offered to whites – or the services and facilities did not exist at all for blacks. And while segregation was literal law in the South, it was also practiced in the northern United States via housing patterns enforced by private covenants, bank lending practices, and job discrimination, including discriminatory labor union practices.

This kind of de facto segregation has lasted well into our own time.

The era of Jim Crow laws saw a dramatic reduction in the number of blacks registered to vote within the South. This time period brought about the Great Migration of blacks to northern and western cities like New York City, Chicago, and Los Angeles. In the 1920s, the Ku Klux Klan experienced a resurgence and spread all over the country, finding a significant popularity that has lingered to this day in the Midwest. It was claimed at the height of the second incarnation of the KKK that its membership exceeded 4 million people nationwide. The Klan didn’t shy away from using burning crosses and other intimidation tools to strike fear into their opponents, who included not just blacks, but also Catholics, Jews, and anyone who wasn’t a white Protestant.

This time period was not without its triumphs for blacks, even if they came at a cost or if they were smaller than one would have preferred. The NAACP was founded in 1909, in response to the continued practice of lynching and race riots in Springfield, Ill. From the 1920s through the 1930s in Harlem, New York, a cultural, social, and artistic movement took place that was later coined the Harlem Renaissance. Musicians like Duke Ellington and Jelly Roll Morton, writers such as Zora Neale Hurston and Langston Hughes, it-girls like Josephine Baker, and philosophers like W.E.B. Du Bois all had a hand in the Harlem Renaissance and American culture as a whole is richer and better for it. 

Notable Supreme Court Cases:

  • The Slaughter-House Cases, 83 U.S. 36 (1873) – this series of three cases, which were consolidated into one issue, offered the first opinion from the Supreme Court on the 14th Amendment. The court chose to interpret the rights protected by the 14th Amendment as very narrow and this precedent would be followed for many years to come.
  • Civil Rights Cases, 109 U.S. 3 (1883) – in this set of five cases that were consolidated into one issue, a majority of the court held the Civil Rights Act of 1875 unconstitutional against the lone famous dissent of Justice Harlan. The majority argued that Congress lacked authority to regulate private affairs under the 14th Amendment and that the 13th Amendment “merely abolishe[d] slavery”. Segregation in public accommodations would not be declared illegal after these cases until the Civil Rights Act of 1964.
  • Plessy v. Ferguson, 163 U.S. 537 (1896) – this is the case which gave us the phrase “separate but equal” and upheld state racial segregation laws for public facilities. Justice Harlan again offered a lone dissent. These laws would remain in play until 1954.

Selected Library Resources:

Additional Resources:

library.law.howard.edu

on this day 6/24 1941 – U.S. President Franklin Roosevelt pledged all possible support to the Soviet Union.


1314 – Scottish forces led by Robert the Bruce won over Edward II of England at the Battle of Bannockburn in Scotland.

1340 – The English fleet defeated the French fleet at Sluys, off the Flemish coast.

1497 – Italian explorer John Cabot, sailing in the service of England, landed in North America on what is now Newfoundland.

1509 – Henry VIII was crowned King of England.

1664 – New Jersey, named after the Isle of Jersey, was founded.

1675 – King Philip’s War began when Indians massacre colonists at Swansee, Plymouth colony.

1717 – The Freemasons were founded in London.

1793 – The first republican constitution in France was adopted.

1812 – Napoleon crossed the Nieman River and invaded Russia.

1844 – Charles Goodyear was granted U.S. patent #3,633 for vulcanized rubber.

1859 – At the Battle of Solferino, also known as the Battle of the Three Sovereigns, the French army led by Napoleon III defeated the Austrian army under Franz Joseph I in northern Italy.

1861 – Federal gunboats attacked Confederate batteries at Mathias Point, Virginia.

1862 – U.S. intervention saved the British and French at the Dagu forts in China.

1869 – Mary Ellen “Mammy” Pleasant officially became the Vodoo Queen in San Francisco, CA.

1896 – Booker T. Washington became the first African American to receive an honorary MA degree from Howard University.

1910 – The Japanese army invaded Korea.

1913 – Greece and Serbia annulled their alliance with Bulgaria following border disputes over Macedonia and Thrace.

1922 – The American Professional Football Association took the name of The National Football League.

1931 – The Soviet Union and Afghanistan signed a treaty of neutrality.

1940 – France signed an armistice with Italy.

1940 – TV cameras were used for the first time in a political convention as the Republicans convened in Philadelphia, PA.

1941 – U.S. President Franklin Roosevelt pledged all possible support to the Soviet Union.

1947 – Kenneth Arnold reported seeing flying saucers over Mt. Rainier, Washington.

1948 – The Soviet Union began the Berlin Blockade.

1955 – Soviet MIG’s down a U.S. Navy patrol plane over the Bering Strait.

1962 – The New York Yankees beat the Detroit Tigers, 9-7, after 22 innings.

1964 – The Federal Trade Commission announced that starting in 1965, cigarette manufactures would be required to include warnings on their packaging about the harmful effects of smoking.

1968 – “Resurrection City,” a shantytown constructed as part of the Poor People’s March on Washington D.C., was closed down by authorities.

1970 – The U.S. Senate voted overwhelmingly to repeal the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution.

1971 – The National Basketball Association modified its four-year eligibility rule to allow for collegiate hardship cases.

1982 – The U.S. Supreme Court ruled 5-4 that no president could be sued for damages connected with actions taken while serving as President of the United States.

1985 – Natalia Solzhenitsyn the wife of exiled, Soviet author Alexander Solzhenitsyn, became a U.S. citizen.

1986 – The Empire State Building was designated a National Historic Landmark.

1997 – The U.S. Air Force released a report titled “The Roswell Report, Case Closed” that dismissed the claims that an alien spacecraft had crashed in Roswell, NM, in 1947.

1998 – AT&T Corp. struck a deal to buy cable TV giant Tele-Communications Inc. for $31.7 billion.

1998 – Walt Disney World Resort admitted its 600-millionth guest.
Disney movies, music and books

2002 – The U.S. Supreme Court ruled that juries, not judges, must make the decision to give a convicted killer the death penalty.