1992 – The U.S. Supreme Court unanimously ruled that hate-crime laws that ban cross-burning and similar expressions of racial bias violated free-speech rights

R.A.V. v. City of St. Paul, 505 U.S. 377 (1992), is a case of the United States Supreme Court that unanimously struck down St. Paul ‘s Bias-Motivated Crime Ordinance and reversed the conviction of a teenager, referred to in court documents only as R.A.V., for burning a cross on the lawn of an African-American family since the ordinance was held to violate the First Amendment ‘s protection of freedom of speech.

Concurrence: White, joined by Blackmun, O’Connor, Stevens (in part)

Full case name: R.A.V., Petitioner v. City of St. Paul, Minnesota

Majority: Scalia, joined by Rehnquist, Kennedy, Souter, Thomas

Prior: Statute upheld as constitutional and charges reinstated, 464 N.W.2d 507 (Minn. 1991)

1783- Zong slave ship trial

Hearing arguments in the case of the Zong, a slave ship, the Chief Justice of the King’s Bench in London states that a massacre of enslaved African “was the same as if Horses had been thrown over board” on June 22, 1783. The crew of the Zong had thrown at least 142 captive Africans into the sea, but the question before the court was not who had committed this atrocity but rather whether the lost “cargo” was covered by insurance. The trial laid bare the horror and inhumanity of the Atlantic slave trade and galvanized the nascent movement to abolish it.

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Zong slave ship trial

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Access Date

June 21, 2022


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June 21, 2021

Original Published Date

June 10, 2020

on this day 6/22 1970 – U.S. President Richard Nixon signed an extension of the Voting Rights Act of 1965. It required that the voting age in the United States to be 18.

1558 – The French took the French town of Thioville from the English.

1611 – English explorer Henry Hudson, his son and several other people were set adrift in present-day Hudson Bay by mutineers.

1772 – Slavery was outlawed in England.

1807 – British seamen board the USS Chesapeake, a provocation leading to the War of 1812.

1815 – Napoleon Bonaparte abdicated a second time.

1832 – J.I. Howe patented the pin machine.

1868 – Arkansas was re-admitted to the Union.

1870 – The U.S. Congress created the Department of Justice.

1874 – Dr. Andrew Taylor Still began the first known practice of osteopathy.

1909 – The first transcontinental auto race ended in Seattle, WA.

1911 – King George V of England was crowned.

1915 – Austro-German forces occupied Lemberg on the Eastern Front as the Russians retreat.

1925 – France and Spain agreed to join forces against Abd el Krim in Morocco.

1933 – Germany became a one political party country when Hitler banned parties other than the Nazis.

1939 – The first U.S. water-ski tournament was held at Jones Beach, on Long Island, New York.

1940 – France and Germany signed an armistice at Compiegne, on terms dictated by the Nazis.

1941 – Under the codename Barbarossa, Germany invaded the Soviet Union.

1942 – A Japanese submarine shelled Fort Stevens at the mouth of the Columbia River.

1942 – In France, Pierre Laval declared “I wish for a German victory”.

1942 – V-Mail, or Victory-Mail, was sent for the first time.

1944 – U.S. President Franklin Roosevelt signed the “GI Bill of Rights” to provide broad benefits for veterans of the war.

1945 – During World War II, the battle for Okinawa officially ended after 81 days.

1946 – Jet airplanes were used to transport mail for the first time.

1956 – The battle for Algiers began as three buildings in Casbah were blown up.

1959 – Eddie Lubanski rolled 24 consecutive strikes in a bowling tournament in Miami, FL.

1964 – The U.S. Supreme Court voted that Henry Miller’s book, “Tropic of Cancer”, could not be banned.

1970 – U.S. President Richard Nixon signed an extension of the Voting Rights Act of 1965. It required that the voting age in the United States to be 18.

1973 – Skylab astronauts splashed down safely in the Pacific after a record 28 days in space.

1974 – In Chicago, the Sears Tower Skydeck opened. (Willis Tower)

1978 – James W. Christy and Robert S. Harrington discovered the only known moon of Pluto. The moon is named Charon.

1980 – The Soviet Union announced a partial withdrawal of its forces from Afghanistan.

1989 – The government of Angola and the anti-Communist rebels of the UNITA movement agreed to a formal truce in their 14-year-old civil war.

1990 – Checkpoint Charlie was dismantled in Berlin.

1992 – The U.S. Supreme Court unanimously ruled that hate-crime laws that ban cross-burning and similar expressions of racial bias violated free-speech rights.

1998 – The U.S. Supreme Court ruled that evidence illegally obtained by authorities could be used at revocation hearings for a convicted criminal’s parole.

1998 – The 75th National Marbles Tournament began in Wildwood, NJ.

1999 – The U.S. Supreme Court ruled that persons with remediable handicaps cannot claim discrimination in employment under the Americans with Disability Act.

2009 – Eastman Kodak Company announced that it would discontinue sales of the Kodachrome Color Film.

“The Act Has Not Failed”: A Call to Extend the Voting Rights Act of 1965

Ultimately, on June 22, 1970, President Richard M. Nixon signed into law a bill that extended the Act’s provisions—including Section 5—for five additional years, and in addition, lowered the voting age throughout the country to 18.


The Voting Rights Act of 1965—called “the most successful civil rights law in the nation’s history” by Rev. Theodore M. Hesburgh, chairman of the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights—was enacted in order to force Southern states and localities to allow all citizens of voting age to vote in public elections. Although the 15th Amendment, ratified in 1870, guaranteed citizens the right to vote regardless of race, discriminatory requirements, such as literacy tests, disenfranchised many African Americans in the South. In 1965, following the murder of a voting rights activist by an Alabama sheriff’s deputy and the subsequent attack by state troopers on a massive protest march in Selma, President Lyndon B. Johnson pressed Congress to pass a voting rights bill with “teeth”. The Act, signed into law on August 6, applied to states or counties where fewer than half of the citizens of voting age were registered in 1964—Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, South Carolina, Virginia, and numerous counties in North Carolina. For these areas, the law banned literacy tests, appointed Federal examiners to oversee election procedures, and, according to the Act’s controversial Section 5, required approval by the U.S. Attorney General of future changes to election laws. In the following letter to a 1969 Senate subcommittee hearing on extending the Act, New Jersey Senator Harrison A. Williams, Jr., provided statistics to show the law’s effect. The position described in the letter was Attorney General John Mitchell’s proposal to replace Section 5 with an oversight mechanism more amenable to the white South.