on this day .. .3/28 1834 – The U.S. Senate voted to censure President Jackson for the removal of federal deposits from the Bank of the United States.

1774 – Britain passed the Coercive Act against Massachusetts.

1797 – Nathaniel Briggs patented a washing machine.

1834 – The U.S. Senate voted to censure President Jackson for the removal of federal deposits from the Bank of the United States.

1854 – The Crimean War began with Britain and France declaring war on Russia.

1864 – A group of Copperheads attack Federal soldiers in Charleston, IL. Five were killed and twenty were wounded.

1865 – Outdoor advertising legislation was enacted in New York. The law banned “painting on stones, rocks and trees.”

1885 – The Salvation Army was officially organized in the U.S.

1898 – The U.S. Supreme Court ruled that a child born in the U.S. to Chinese immigrants was a U.S. citizen. This meant that they could not be deported under the Chinese Exclusion Act.

1903 – Anatole France’s “Crainquebille” premiered in Paris.

1905 – The U.S. took full control over Dominican revenues.

1908 – Automobile owners lobbied the U.S. Congress, supporting a bill that called for vehicle licensing and federal registration.

1910 – The first seaplane took off from water at Martinques, France. The pilot was Henri Fabre.

1911 – In New York, suffragists performed the political play “Pageant of Protest.”

1917 – During World War I the Women’s Army Auxiliary Corps (WAAC) was founded.

1921 – U.S. President Warren Harding named William Howard Taft as chief justice of the United States Supreme Court.

1922 – Bradley A. Fiske patented a microfilm reading device.

1930 – Constantinople and Angora changed their names to Istanbul and Ankara respectively.

1933 – In Germany, the Nazis ordered a ban on all Jews in businesses, professions and schools.

1938 – In Italy, psychiatrists demonstrated the use of electric-shock therapy for treatment of certain mental illnesses.

1939 – The Spanish Civil War ended as Madrid fell to Francisco Franco.

1941 – The Italian fleet was defeated by the British at the Battle of Matapan.

1942 – British naval forces raided the Nazi occupied French port of St. Nazaire.

1945 – Germany launched the last of the V-2 rockets against England.

1947 – The American Helicopter Society revealed a flying device that could be strapped to a person’s body.

1962 – The U.S. Air Force announced research into the use of lasers to intercept missiles and satellites.

1963 – Sonny Werblin announced that the New York Titans of the American Football League was changing its name to the New York Jets. (NFL)

1967 – Raymond Burr starred in a TV movie titled “Ironside.” The movie was later turned into a television series.

1968 – The U.S. lost its first F-111 aircraft in Vietnam when it vanished while on a combat mission. North Vietnam claimed that they had shot it down.

1974 – A streaker ran onto the set of “The Tonight Show starring Johnny Carson.”

1979 – A major accident occurred at Pennsylvania’s Three Mile Island nuclear power plant. A nuclear power reactor overheated and suffered a partial meltdown.

1981 – In Bangkok, Thailand, Indonesian terrorists hijacked an airplane. Four of the five terrorists were killed on March 31.

1986 – The U.S. Senate passed $100 million aid package for the Nicaraguan contras.

1986 – More than 6,000 radio stations of all format varieties played “We are the World” simultaneously at 10:15 a.m. EST.

1990 – Jesse Owens received the Congressional Gold Medal from U.S. President George H.W. Bush.

1990 – In Britain, a joint Anglo-U.S. “sting” operation ended with the seizure of 40 capacitors, which can be used in the trigger mechanism of a nuclear weapon.

1991 – The U.S. embassy in Moscow was severely damaged by fire.

1994 – Violence between Zulus and African National Congress supporters took the lives of 18 in Johannesburg.

1999 – Paraguay’s President Raúl Cubas Grau resigned after protests inspired by the assassination of Vice-President Luis María Argaña on March 23. The nation’s Congress had accused Cubas and his political associate, Gen. Lino César Oviedo, for Cubas’ murder. Senate President Luis González Macchi took office as Paraguay’s new chief executive.

2002 – The exhibit “The Italians: Three Centuries of Italian Art” opened at the National Gallery of Australia.

2010 – China’s Zhejiang Geely Holding Group Co. signed a deal to buy Ford Motor Co.’s Volvo car unit.

Slaughterhouse torture – Emma Ruby-Sachs – Avaaz

Dear Avaazers,

Brave activists installed secret cameras in slaughterhouses and filmed animals being hacked, dismembered and decapitated all while alive and conscious!

Scientists have proved that many animals have the same emotions and awareness as toddlers. It’s time to stop torturing them in this sickening way.

Thankfully, the secret footage forced governments in France and Israel to require 24 hour slaughter surveillance — and we can take this genius strategy global. If each of us chips in now, Avaaz’ll buy the cameras, fund undercover journalists to get footage, and then run massive exposé campaigns in the media to force governments to make this violence illegal and protect animals everywhere.

Seeing the fear and pain in the eyes of a cow as she is pushed to brutal torture and death is beyond heartbreaking. And to not even take the extra few seconds to sedate and numb her beforehand, just to make a tiny bit more money and kill more animals faster, is inhumane and must be stopped.

In France activists put cameras in a slaughterhouse that claimed to be “animal friendly,” and showed animals weren’t even being stunned before they were killed. The videos were so shocking, they inspired a national campaign that won a ruling requiring cameras in the places animals are raised and killed for meat, that have to be reviewed by animal welfare experts!

Whether we eat meat or not, this kind of law stops unnecessary violence AND makes sure our food comes from safe (and sane) farms and factories.

If we put this plan in action fast, it’s possible to pass this same law for the whole European Union, then bring protections to animals in the US and Canada and across the world. We can move on this now with just a few cameras and with the help of our journalist and animal rights partners, if each of us just donates a small amount today!

Every time we win a new recognition for the humanity of animals, we come closer to a world where the harmony between humanity and nature is restored. Our campaigning together has already saved massive corridors for elephants and orangutans, seriously cut back whale hunting, and marked the beginning of the end for a brutal dog slaughter. This is our chance to legally end the intolerable suffering of the animals most exploited by humans.

With hope and respect for everyone in this amazing movement,
Emma, Alice, Nataliya, Danny, Luca, and the whole Avaaz team


French parliament votes to install cameras in slaughterhouses (Fox News)

Cameras to be installed in all slaughterhouses in Israel (Jerusalem Online)

Israel Moves to Install Cameras in Slaughterhouses to Prevent Cruelty (Haaretz)

Low-Carb Fruit List: Which Fruits Have the Most and Least Sugar


If you follow a low-carb diet or are living with diabetes, you may have a complicated relationship with fruit. You may have heard you don’t need to worry about how much sugar is in fruit because it is considered natural sugar. However, the truth is that it depends. Fruits contain many nutrients, and if you’re going to be eating sugar it’s better to have some great nutrients to go with it! The good new is that the fruits lowest in sugar have some of the highest nutritional values, including antioxidants and other phytonutrients.

 On the other hand, some people digest and process sugar better than others. If you are someone who responds well to a low-carb diet, it pays to be careful.


The FDA recommends adults eat 2 cups of fruit per day. How much fruit you eat, may differ if you are following a specific low-carb diet plan. Some of the popular low-carb diet plans differ, based on whether they consider glycemic index or glycemic load (South Beach, Zone), while others just look at the amount of carbohydrate (Atkins, Protein Power). Other diets (Atkins, South Beach) don’t allow fruit at all in the first phase. Not all low-carb diets limit fruit, however. Diets like the Paleo diet, Whole30 and even Weight Watchers (although it’s not necessarily a low-carb diet) do not place a limit on fruit.

In general, if you are following a low-carb diet, you should try and eat fruits that are low in sugar. When consulting the list below, which ranks fruit based on sugar content, keep in mind that some values are per cup while others are per whole fruit.

Fruits Low in Sugar

  • Lime: 1.1 grams of sugar per fruit
  • Rhubarb: 1.3 grams of sugar per cup
  • Lemon: 1.5 grams of sugar per fruit
  • Apricots: 3.2 grams of sugar per small apricot
  • Cranberries: 4 grams of sugar per cup
  • Guavas: 4.9 grams of sugar per fruit
  • Raspberries: 5 grams of sugar per cup
  • Kiwifruit: 6 grams of sugar per kiwi

Fruits Containing Low to Medium Levels of Sugar

Fruits Containing High to Very High Levels of Sugar

  • Pineapple: 16 grams of fruit per slice
  • Pears: 17 grams of sugar per medium pear
  • Bananas: 17 grams of sugar per large banana
  • Watermelon: 18 grams of sugar per wedge
  • Apples: 19 grams of sugar in a small apple
  • Pomegranates: 39 grams of sugar per pomegranate
  • Mangos: 46 grams of sugar per fruit
  • ​​​Prunes: 66 grams of sugar per cup
  • Raisins: 86 grams of sugar per cup
  • Dates: 93 grams of sugar per cup

FAO – Achieving food security for all is at the heart of FAO’s efforts


Achieving food security for all is at the heart of FAO’s efforts – to make sure people have regular access to enough high-quality food to lead active, healthy lives.

Our 3 main goals are: the eradication of hunger, food insecurity and malnutrition; the elimination of poverty and the driving forward of economic and social progress for all; and, the sustainable management and utilization of natural resources, including land, water, air, climate and genetic resources for the benefit of present and future generations.

A short history of FAO

In 2014, during ICN2, FAO members, parliamentarians, members from civil society and private sector endorsed the Rome Declaration on Nutrition and the Framework of Action. The Rome Declaration on Nutrition enshrines the right of everyone to have access to safe, sufficient and nutritious food, and commits governments to prevent malnutrition in all its forms. The Framework of Action recognizes that governments have the primary role and responsibility for addressing nutrition issues and challenges.

The United Nations General Assembly declares the “International Year of Quinoa” with FAO serving as the Secretariat of the IYQ, assisting the International Committee to coordinate the celebrations. Quinoa’s legacy is celebrated at headquarters with Peru and Bolivia during World Food Week. Also, this year a new partnership agreement is signed with the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC),the world’s largest humanitarian network, to help improve food security and strengthen the resilience of vulnerable communities. FAO and the IFRC agree that FAO will provide technical guidance to complement IFRC’s extensive network of 13 million volunteers – who in turn reach some 150 million people – to assist poor households cope with threats and disasters that impact agriculture, food security and nutrition.

In a landmark decision the Committee on World Food Security (CFS) endorsed the new Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fisheries and Forests in the Context of National Food Security on 11 May 2012.  FAO launched a major fund-raising campaign with the aim of securing USD 20 million to translate into action the guidelines, aimed at helping governments safeguard the rights of people to own or access land, forests and fisheries. For the 2012 International Year of Cooperatives, FAO took the lead and partnered with WFP and IFAD and others to help the focus on improving the lives of millions of smallholder farmers and their families.

In a historic victory of veterinary science, FAO and OIE announced that thanks to a decades-long international cooperative effort, the fatal cattle disease known as rinderpest had successfully been eradicated in the wild. In July, FAO declared a state of famine in two regions of Somalia and appealed for US$120 million for response to the drought across the Horn of Africa. FAO Member countries elected José Graziano da Silva of Brazil as Director-General, to take office in January 2012.
As the worst floods ever to hit Pakistan wiped out seed stores and killed millions of head of livestock, FAO responded with distribution of wheat seed to half a million farming families in time for the planting season. An additional 235 000 families received feed, medicine and shelter for their animals.

FAO holds a World Summit on Food Security on 16-18 November to inject new urgency into the fight against hunger. Sixty heads of state and government and 192 ministers unanimously adopt a declaration pledging renewed commitment to eradicate hunger from the Earth at the earliest date


FAO holds a high-level conference on 3–5 June on the impact of climate change and the biofuel boom on food security and food prices. Attended by 43 heads of state and 100 government ministers, the conference adopted a resolution to increase assistance and investment in developing world agriculture. The 16th session of the UN Assembly invites FAO to facilitate the “International Year of Potato.”  The resolution noted that the potato is a staple food in the diet of the world’s population, and affirmed the role that the potato could play in achieving internationally agreed development objectives, including the United Nations Millennium Development Goals.

All 119 countries at FAO’s Committee on Fisheries in Rome agree on a proposal to develop a legally binding measure to tackle illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing practices, which cause severe economic, social, biological and environmental damage.

FAO unveils its high-tech Crisis Management Centre to fight bird flu and other animal health or food safety emergencies. The service monitors disease outbreaks and dispatches experts to any hot spot in the world in under 48 hours. Together with the Government of Brazil, FAO organizes the International Conference on Agrarian Reform and Rural Development (ICARRD) to explore new development opportunities to revitalize rural communities worldwide.

The 60th anniversary of FAO’s founding celebrated in a ceremony attended by Heads of State and Government, Ministers and other dignitaries from all regions of the world.
FAO launches an eight-year project to help countries implement its ‘Strategy for Improving Information on Status and Trends in Capture Fisheries’ and improve their collection and dissemination of fisheries data.

FAO announces the entering into force of the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture, an essential legally binding agreement that encourages sustainable agriculture through the equitable sharing of genetic material and its benefits among plant breeders, farmers and public and private research institutions. In the same year we facilitate the implementation of the International Year of Rice (IYR) to promote improved production and access to this crop which feeds more than half of the world’s population whilst providing income for millions of rice producers, processors and traders.

Following two years of intergovernmental negotiations mandated by the “World Food Summit: Five years later”, the Council of FAO unanimously adopts the Voluntary Guidelines to Support the Progressive Realization of the Right to Adequate Food in the Context of National Food Security (Right to Food Guidelines)

World Food Summit: five years later, attended by delegations from 179 countries plus the European Commission, reaffirms the international community’s commitment to reduce the number of the undernourished by half by 2015.

FAO Conference adopts the legally binding International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture, which supports the work of breeders and farmers everywhere.

FAO develops a strategy for concerted government and UN agency action to combat chronic hunger in the Horn of Africa, at the request of the United Nations Secretary-General.

FAO’s Committee on Fisheries adopts plans of action on fishing capacity, sharks and seabirds. FAO’s Fisheries Agreement Register (FARISIS) is built that provides up to 34 descriptor fields for each record and contains information on 1,927 agreements dating back to the year 1351.

An FAO-brokered legally binding convention to control trade in pesticides and other hazardous trade in chemicalsis adopted in Rotterdam (the Rotterdam Convention on Prior Informed Consent).

FAO launches campaign against hunger initiative TeleFood. TeleFood ’97 reaches a global audience of 500 million.

FAO hosts 186 Heads of State or Government and other high officials at World Food Summit in November to discuss and combat world hunger. Heads of state and representatives adopt the Rome Declaration on World Food Security and World Food Summit Plan of Action.

FAO celebrates its 50th birthday. The Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries is adopted in October to provide a necessary framework for national and international efforts to ensure sustainable exploitation of aquatic living resources in harmony with the environment.

FAO launches the Special Programme for Food Security (SPFS), targeting low-income food-deficit countries (LIFDCs).
The Emergency Prevention System for Transboundary Animal and Plant Pests and Diseases (EMPRES), strengthening the Organization’s existing contribution to prevention, control and, when possible, eradication of diseases and pests, is established.
FAO begins the most significant restructuring since its founding to decentralize operations, streamline procedures and reduce costs.

FAO and  the World Health Organization (WHO) convene the first global conference devoted solely to addressing the world’s nutrition problems, the International Conference on Nutrition (ICN). Governments pledge to make all efforts to eliminate or reduce substantially before the next millennium, starvation and famine; widespread chronic hunger; undernutrition, especially among children, women and the aged; micronutrient deficiencies, especially iron, iodine and vitamin A deficiencies; diet-related communicable and non-communicable diseases; impediments to optimal breast-feeding; and inadequate sanitation, poor hygiene and unsafe drinking-water.

International Plant Protection Convention is ratified with 92 signatories.

AGROSTAT (now FAOSTAT), the world’s most comprehensive source of agricultural information and statistics, becomes operational.

The first World Food Day observed on 16 October by more than 150 countries.

FAO concludes 56 agreements for the appointment of FAO Representatives in developing member countries.

The Eighth World Forestry Congress, held in Jakarta, Indonesia, with the theme “Forests for people”, has a profound impact on attitudes towards forestry development and FAO’s work in this sector.

FAO’s Technical Cooperation Programme established to afford greater flexibility in responding to urgent situations.

UN World Food Conference in Rome recommends the adoption of an International Undertaking on World Food Security.

The FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius Commission established to set international food standards becomes operational.

Freedom from Hunger campaign launched to mobilize non-governmental support.

FAO headquarters moved to Rome, Italy, from Washington, DC, the United States.

First session of FAO Conference, Quebec City, Canada, establishes FAO as a specialized United Nations agency.

Forty-four governments, meeting in Hot Springs, Virginia, the United States, commit themselves to founding a permanent organization for food and agriculture.