The 1911 House Reapportionment

August 08, 1911

On this date, President William H. Taft signed legislation increasing the membership of the House from 391 to 433, with provisions to add two more Members when New Mexico and Arizona became states. The legislation took effect on March 3, 1913, during the 63rd Congress (1913–1915). Debate on the bill, however, raised concerns that the House was growing to an unwieldy size. “Members are . . . supposed to reflect the opinion and to stand for the wishes of their constituents,” declared Representative Edgar Crumpacker of Indiana, who chaired the House Committee on the Census. “If we make the ratio [of persons per Representative] too large the idea of representation becomes attenuated and less definite. The personal interest of the voter in his representative becomes less important to him, and we may lose something of the vital strength of our representative form of government.” In 1920, partly because of a fear of a large House, Congress failed to apportion the House for the first time after a decennial census. In 1929, the Permanent Apportionment Act capped House membership at 435, where it has remained, save a temporary increase to 437 Members from 1959 to 1963 after Alaska and Hawaii achieved statehood.

Impeachment of 17th President ~ Andrew Johnson ~ “high crimes and misdemeanors”

The primary charge against Johnson was a violation of the Tenure of Office ActThe Impeachment Trial of Andrew Johnson

Why Was Andrew Johnson Impeached?

Andrew Johnson was the 17th president of the United States who served from April 15, 1865 to May 5, 1869. He was impeached on February 24, 1868, after violating the Tenure of Office Act. Johnson had fired Edwin M. Stanton, the Secretary of War, which was in violation of the law that requires the president to get Senate approval before dismissing a member of the cabinet.

Edwin M. Stanton was a radical and an influential Republican, and the Republican members of the House of Representatives sought to impeach the Democrat president three days later. Johnson had fired Stanton because of the constant clashes with members of the Republican Party concerning the treatment of the South after the end of the American Civil War. Republicans considered the president sympathetic and friendly to former slaveholders. Although the Republicans had more than the required two-thirds membership in the Senate, a small number of those members chose to support the president’s action, and Johnson ultimately survived the conviction by a single vote.

30 Facts about the Impeachment of Andrew Johnson for kids

The Impeachment Trial of Andrew Johnson

Impeachment of Andrew Johnson

Fact 1: President Abraham Lincoln was assassinated in April 1865 and Vice President Andrew Johnson assumed the role of President of the United States at the end of the Civil War, as the Reconstruction of the South was just beginning
 Fact 2: Andrew Johnson was a Southern Democrat and, as such, had sympathies with the Confederacy and granted pardons to ex-Confederates on a large scale. He was inexperienced, a stubborn man with little patience. The government consisted of many radical Republicans and before long the President and Congress were in conflict due to Reconstruction Policies.
Fact 3: The radical Republicans believed that the President was behaving too leniently towards the Southern states who were attempting to restore self-rule and passing state laws referred to as the Black Codes. At the end of 1865, just six months after the end of the Civil War Andrew Johnson declared the end of Reconstruction.

Fact 4: The radical Republicans were outraged and were determined to establish a Congressional Reconstruction. The Southern Democrat President and the radical Republicans were in direct conflict and on a collision course that would end with the Impeachment of the President.
Fact 5: The President further infuriated Congress by vetoing an extension to the Freedmen’s Bureau
Fact 6: Republicans passed the Civil Rights Act of 1866 overriding the President’s veto.
Fact 7: The radicals become more powerful by gaining a two-thirds margin in the 1866 Congressional elections
Fact 8: Congress develop plans for the reunification of the South which will be referred to as Congressional Reconstruction
Fact 9: Congress passed the first of the Reconstruction Acts, overriding the President’s veto, which gave them military and political control of the Southern states.
Fact 10: The President replaces several generals who command the 5 military districts established by the Reconstruction Acts

Fact 11: Congress passed the Tenure of Office Act on March 2, 1867, overriding the President’s veto, to limit the President’s powers and prevent him dismissing radical Republicans from office.
Fact 12: The Tenure of Office Act was also passed to stop the President interfering with the Congressional plans for Reconstruction
Fact 13: The Tenure of Office Act forbids the President to remove any federal office-holder appointed by at the Senate without the further approval of the Senate
Fact 14: The Tenure of Office Act also provides that the President’s cabinet should hold office for the full term of the President plus one month, subject to removal by the Senate
Fact 15: The President is furious regarding the Tenure of Office Act claiming it is unconstitutional
Fact 16: The President continues to oppose congressional policy, and insists on the removal of the radical Secretary of War, Edwin M. Stanton, in defiance of the Tenure of Office Act .
Fact 17: Edwin Stanton, as Secretary of War, was an important member of the cabinet and a firm supporter of the radical Republicans
 Fact 18: Edwin Stanton was in open opposition to the policies of the President
Fact 19: Edwin Stanton refused to move and barricaded himself in his office claiming that the Tenure of Office Act protected him.
Fact 20: Congress supported Edwin Stanton’s claims asserting that by suspending Edwin Stanton and removing him from his cabinet without the consent of Congress, the President Johnson had breached the Tenure of Office Act.
Fact 21: Congress started Impeachment Proceedings against the President

Fact 22: Impeachment is a criminal proceeding against a public official requiring formal documentation and Articles of impeachment
Fact 23: It is the right of the House of Representatives to impeach. It is the right of the Senate to try and determine impeachments.
Fact 24: Constitution: The Constitution of the United States refers to the process of Impeachment in Article II, Section 4 of the Constitution.
Fact 25: On Monday, February 24, 1868, the House of Representatives resolved to impeach Andrew Johnson of high crimes and misdemeanors
Fact 26: On Monday the March 2, 1868, eleven articles of impeachment were agreed by the House of Representatives.
Fact 27: On March 2, 1868 the Articles of Impeachment were presented to the Senate and the grand inquest of the nation is set to begin

Fact 28: March 30, 1868: The impeachment trial of Johnson begins in the Senate

Fact 29: May 16, 1868: The Senate voted on the 11th Article of Impeachment and is one vote short of the 2/3 majority needed to impeach the President

 Fact 30: May 26, 1868: The final vote was taken in the Senate on the second and third Articles of Impeachment and Johnson was again acquitted. The Impeachment trial of Andrew Johnson is over.

1945 – The United Nations Charter was signed by U.S. President Truman.

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President Harry S. Truman signs the United Nations Charter and the United States becomes the first nation to complete the ratification process and join the new international organization. Although hopes were high at the time that the United Nations would serve as an arbiter of international disputes, the organization also served as the scene for some memorable Cold War clashes.

August 8, 1945, was a busy day in the history of World War II. The United States dropped a second atomic bomb on Japan, devastating the city of Nagasaki. The Soviet Union, following through with an agreement made earlier in the war, declared war on Japan. All observers agreed that the combination of these two actions would bring a speedy end to Japanese resistance. At the same time, in Washington, D.C., President Truman took a step that many Americans hoped would mean continued peace in the post-World War II world. The president signed the United Nations Charter, thus completing American ratification of the document. Secretary of State James F. Byrnes also signed. In so doing, the United States became the first nation to complete the ratification process. The charter would come into full force when China, Russia, Great Britain, France, and a majority of the other nations that had constructed the document also completed ratification.

The signing was accomplished with little pomp and ceremony. Indeed, President Truman did not even use one of the ceremonial pens to sign, instead opting for a cheap 10-cent desk pen. Nonetheless, the event was marked by hope and optimism. Having gone through the horrors of two world wars in three decades, most Americans–and people around the world–were hopeful that the new international organization would serve as a forum for settling international disagreements and a means for maintaining global peace. Over the next decades, the United Nations did serve as the scene for some of the more notable events in the Cold War: the decision by the Security Council to send troops to Korea in 1950; Khrushchev pounding the table with his shoe during a U.N. debate; and continuous and divisive discussion over admission of communist China to membership in the UN. As for its role as a peacekeeping institution, the record of the U.N. was not one of great success during the Cold War. The Soviet veto in the Security Council stymied some efforts, while the U.S. desire to steer an independent course in terms of military involvement after the unpopular Korean War meant less and less recourse to the U.N. to solve world conflicts. In the years since the end of the Cold War, however, the United States and Russia have sometimes cooperated to send United Nations force

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President Truman signs United Nations Charter
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August 7, 2019
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August 6, 2019
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