2000 – The 1998 Children’s Online Privacy Protection Act went into effect.


Children’S Online Privacy Protection Act (COPPA)

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The Children’s Online Privacy Protection Act (COPPA) is a U.S. federal law designed to limit the collection and use of personal information about children by the operators of Internet services and Web sites. Passed by the U.S. Congress in 1998, the law took effect in April 2000. It is administered and enforced by the Federal Trade Commission (FTC). COPPA is “the first U.S. privacy law written for the Internet,” Melissa Campanelli wrote in Entrepreneur. “It was written specifically for Internet marketers that operate Web sites visited by children under the age of 13 and collect personal information from those kids. Its purpose is to regulate that collection.”

The FTC conducted a survey of 212 Web sites in 1998 and found that 89 percent of them collected personal information from children. Of those that collected data from children, 46 percent did not disclose this fact or explain how the information was used. The law was intended to address this potential problem by requiring Web sites and other online services directed toward children under the age of 13—as well as general audience sites that collect personal information from children—to obtain verifiable consent from the children’s parents. “Its stated purpose is to protect children from micro-targeting by advertisers and to minimize the potential for contact with dangerous individuals through chat rooms, e-mail, and bulletin boards by involving parents in kids’ online activities,” Monica Rogers explained in Crain’s Chicago Business.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

Bagner, Jessica, Amanda Evansburg, Vanessa Kaye Watson, and J. Brooke Welch. “Largest COPPA Civil Penalties to Date in FTC Settlements with Mrs. Fields Cookies and Hershey Food Corporation.” Intellectual Property & Technology Law Journal. June 2003.

Campanelli, Melissa. “The Wizard of Laws.” Entrepreneur. February 2001.

DiSabatino, Jennifer. “FTC OKs Self-Regulation to Protect Children’s Privacy.” Computerworld. 12 February 2001.

“Firms May Need to Examine Kid-Oriented Privacy.” Financial Net News. 31 July 2000.

Godbey, Robert Carson. “The Law of the Line.” Hawaii Business. November 2000.

Jarvis, Steve. “COPPA Minefield.” Marketing News. 4 December 2000.

Marks, Antony, and Keith Klein. “Coping with COPPA.” Los Angeles Business Journal. 31 July 2000.

Retsky, Maxine Lans. “Sites Find COPPA Compliance Mandatory.” Marketing News. 28 August 2000.

Rogers, Monica. “Kids’ Privacy Act Stings Web Sites; New Guidelines Limit Sharing of Data with Others.” Crain’s Chicago Business. 15 May 2000.

Rosencrance, Linda. “FTC Warns Sites to Comply with Children’s Privacy Law.” Computerworld. 24 July 2000.

1994 – Jackie Parker became the first woman to qualify to fly an F-16 combat plane.


OLD ATTITUDES GROUND FEMALE AIR FORCE PILOT

PATRICIA RODRIGUEZFort Worth Star-TelegramSUN-SENTINEL
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It was perhaps inevitable that Maj. Jackie Parker would grow up wanting to fly for her country.

For starters, she was born on the Fourth of July. Then as a child, she attended Apollo Elementary School in Titusville, where the principal, honest, was named Mr. Moon.

Parker learned to fly before she learned to drive, became an Air Force pilot by the time she was 20 and racked up an impressive number of firsts: youngest spaceflight air traffic controller at NASA; first woman to be an Air Force test pilot; youngest woman to serve as an instructor pilot on several different aircraft.

Finally, after women were cleared in 1993 to train for combat assignments, Parker became one of the first women to qualify as a fighter pilot for the U.S. military. It was, one would think, a fitting cap to her military career.

Except she never flew a mission. Parker, now 35, resigned from flying last summer after she was told she could not join her squadron on a mission to Turkey. A resulting internal investigation revealed a pattern of discrimination against her. And although she says the experience hasn’t soured her on the military, it has reminded her that even 30 years after the modern women’s movement began, women are still treated differently.

“It’s sad. It’s still a big deal, and I wish it wasn’t,” says Parker, minutes after addressing a group of about 325 grade-school students at Glen Hope Elementary in Colleyville, Texas, where one of her sisters lives. “I’m tired of always being in an occupation that’s newsworthy.

… All I wanted to do is fly.”

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