history… april 30


0030 – Jesus of Nazareth was crucified.

0313 – Licinius unified the whole of the eastern empire under his own rule.

1250 – King Louis IX of France was ransomed for one million dollars.

1527 – Henry VIII and King Francis of France signed the treaty of Westminster.

1725 – Spain withdrew from Quadruple Alliance.

1789 – George Washington took office as first elected U.S. president.

1803 – The U.S. purchased the Louisiana Territory from France for $15 million.

1812 – Louisiana admitted as the 18th U.S. state.

1849 – The republican patriot and guerrilla leader Giuseppe Garabaldi repulsed a French attack on Rome.

1864 – Work began on the Dams along the Red River. The work would allow Union General Nathaniel Banks’ troops to sail over the rapids above Alexandria, Louisiana.

1889 – George Washington’s inauguration became the first U.S. national holiday.

1900 – Hawaii was organized as an official U.S. territory.

1900 – Casey Jones was killed while trying to save the runaway train “Cannonball Express.”

1930 – The Soviet Union proposed a military alliance with France and Great Britain.

1938 – Happy Rabbit appeared in the cartoon “Porky’s Hare Hunt.” This rabbit would later evolve into Bugs Bunny.

1939 – The first railroad car equipped with fluorescent lights was put into service. The train car was known as the “General Pershing Zephyr.”

1939 – Lou Gehrig played his last game with the New York Yankees.

1940 – Belle Martell was licensed in California by state boxing officials. She was the first American woman, prizefight referee.

1943 – The British submarine HMS Seraph dropped ‘the man who never was,’ a dead man the British planted with false invasion plans, into the Mediterranean off the coast of Spain.

1945 – Adolf Hitler and Eva Braun committed suicide. They had been married for one day. One week later Germany surrendered unconditionally.

1945 – Arthur Godfrey began his CBS radio morning show “Arthur Godfrey Time.” It ran until this day in 1972.

1947 – The name of Boulder Dam, in Nevada, was changed back to Hoover Dam.

1948 – The Organization of American States (OAS) held its first meeting in Bogota, Colombia. The institution’s goal was to facilitate better relations between the member nations and to help prevent the spread of communism in the Western Hemisphere.

1952 – Mr. Potato Head became the first toy to be advertised on network television.

1953 – The British West Indian colonies agreed on the formation of the British Caribbean Federation that would eventually become a self-governing unit in the British Commonwealth.

1964 – The FCC ruled that all TV receivers should be equipped to receive both VHF and UHF channels.

1968 – U.S. Marines attacked a division of North Vietnamese in the village of Dai Do.

1970 – U.S. troops invaded Cambodia to disrupt North Vietnamese Army base areas. The announcement by U.S. President Nixon led to widespread protests.

1972 – The North Vietnamese launched an invasion of the South.

1973 – U.S. President Nixon announced resignation of Haldeman, Ehrlichman, and other top aides.

1975 – Communists North Vietnamese troops entered the Independence Palace of South Vietnam in Saigon. 11 Marines lifted off of the U.S. Embassy were the last soldiers to evacuate.

1980 – Terrorists seized the Iranian Embassy in London.

1984 – U.S. President Reagan signed cultural and scientific agreements with China. He also signed a tax accord that would make it easier for American companies to operate in China.

1991 – An estimated 125,000 people were killed in a cyclone that hit Bangladesh.

1993 – CERN put the World Wide Web software in the public domain.

1993 – Monica Seles was stabbed in the back during a tennis match in Hamburg, Germany. The man called himself a fan of second- ranked Steffi Graf. He was convicted of causing grievous bodily harm and received a suspended sentence.

1998 – NATO was expanded to include Poland, Hungary and the Czech Republic. The three nations were formally admitted the following April at NATO’s 50th anniversary summit.

1998 – United and Delta airlines announced their alliance that would give them control of 1/3 of all U.S. passenger seats.

1998 – In the U.S., Federal regulators fined a contractor $2.25 million for improper handling of oxygen canisters on ValuJet that crashed in the Florida Everglades in 1996.

2002 – Pakistani President Pervez Musharraf was overwhelmingly approved for another five years as president.

2012 – One World Trade Center became the tallest structure in New York when it surpassed the height of the Empire State Building.

2015 – NASA’s Messenger spacecraft crashed into the surface of Mercury. The space probe sent back more than 270,000 pictures to earth.

on-this-day.com

DID THOMAS JEFFERSON TRY TO ABOLISH SLAVERY IN THE DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE?


POSTED BY BLACKTHEN – APRIL 29, 2021 – LATEST POSTSSLAVERY

Jefferson_Thomas

Of all his writings, Thomas Jefferson’s most famous and far-reaching was undoubtedly his draft of the Declaration of Independence.

Although the issue of slavery was widely debated — both the chattel slavery of Africans in America and the civil slavery that fired patriot rhetoric — it is conspicuously absent from the final version of the Declaration. Yet in his rough draft, Jefferson railed against King George III for creating and sustaining the slave trade, describing it as “a cruel war against human nature.”

Although Jefferson’s description of the slave trade was as much an indictment of the colonies as of Britain and the king, the issue that most distressed the patriots stemmed from Lord Dunmore’s 1775 proclamation that offered freedom to slaves who joined the British cause: “…he is now exciting those very people to rise in arms among us, and to purchase that liberty of which he has deprived them, by murdering the people on whom he also obtruded them…”

When the document was presented to the Continental Congress on July 1, 1776, both northern and southern slaveholding delegates objected to its inclusion, and it was removed. The only remaining allusion to the original paragraph on slavery is the phrase “He has excited domestic Insurrections among us,” included in a list of grievances against the king.

Original Article Found At http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part2/2h33.html

Source: blackthen.com

HENRI CHRISTOPHE: WEST AFRICAN SLAVE AND EARLY KING OF HAITI


 JAE JONES – – BLACK HISTORYBLACK MENLATEST POSTS

Henri Christophe was a West African slave and became an early king of (Haiti).

Christophe was born on the island of Grenada, a British colonial acquisition. His parents were slaves brought to Grenada with thousands of other West Africans to work in the sugar industry. These slaves in the sugar industry were known for their fierce and determined nature to resist the institution of slavery.

Henri was sold by the ship’s captain to a French sugar planter in the French province on the island of Saint Dominique called Haiti, which was a Carob Indian name meaning “the land of the mountains.” The brutality of the French planters led to much discontent among the slaves in Haiti. These acts of brutality were witnessed by Christophe and set the stage for his role in the Haitian revolution. He participated in the American Revolutionary War in the French contingent. As a sergeant, he was among the 545 Haitian free Negroes known as the Fontages Legion.

In June 1794, the Spaniards and the English who wanted to share the wealth created by the sugar industry threatened Haiti. The Spaniards constituted the greatest threat and a battle for control of Haiti ensued. The three principal figures in the Haitian revolution were Toussaint L’Overture, Jean Jacques Dessalines, and Christophe. Toussaint joined the French forces against the Spaniards, became a general of the slaves, and marched to several villages, liberating his brothers who immediately joined his forces. After distinguishing himself in battle, Christophe was made a sergeant by Toussaint and later made a general by Dessalines.

The French forces were defeated and Haiti was declared an independent republic on November 27, 1803. The Republic of Haiti was divided into two states, and Christophe was elected president of the Northern State in February of 1807. As president Christophe set out to improve all aspects of life in the Northern Province. One of his major concerns and preoccupations was the defense of his country from internal and external aggression.

Christophe suffered a stroke that left him partially paralyzed in August 1820. The news quickly spread about his ailment and the seeds of rebellion began to grow. On October 2, 1820, the military garrison at St. Marc led a mutiny that sparked a revolt. The mutiny coincided with a conspiracy of Christophe’s own generals. Some of his trusted aides took him to the Citadel to await the inevitable confrontation with the rebels. Christophe ordered his attendants to bathe him, dress him in his formal military uniform, place him in his favorite chair in his den, and leave him alone.

Shortly after the attendants left his side, Christophe committed suicide by shooting himself in the heart with a silver bullet on October 8, 1820.

sources:

Henri Christophe (1767-1820)