On this day … September 13


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1788 – The Constitutional Convention decided that the first federal election was to be held on Wednesday the following February. On that day George Washington was elected as the first president of the United States. In addition, New York City was named the temporary national capital.
1789 – The United States Government took out its first loan.

 

1922 – In El Azizia, Libya, the highest shade temperature was recorded at 136.4 degrees Fahrenheit.

1948 – The School of Performing Arts opened in New York City. It was the first public school to specialize in performing arts.

1948 – Margaret Chase Smith was elected to the U.S. Senate and became the first woman to serve in both houses of the U.S. Congress.

 

1949 – The Ladies Professional Golf Association of America was formed.

 

1960 – The U.S. Federal Communications Commission banned payola.

 

1971 – In New York, National Guardsmen stormed the Attica Correctional Facility and put an end to the four-day revolt. A total of 43 people were killed in the final assault. A committee was organized to investigate the riot on September 30, 1971.

1977 – The first diesel automobiles were introduced by General Motors.

1981 – U.S. Secretary of State Alexander M. Haig said the U.S. had physical evidence that Russia and its allies used poisonous biological weapons in Laos, Cambodia and Afghanistan.

1993 – Israel and Palestine signed their first major agreement. Palestine was granted limited self-government in the Gaza Strip and in Jericho.

Rep. John Lewis Speaks Out against Voter Suppression legislation being brought to the floor of Congress – in 2012


May 10, 2012 by    

it is hard and difficult and almost unbelievable that any member, especially a member from the state of georgia, would come and offer such amendment. there’s a long history in our country, especially in the 11 states that are — of the old confederacy from virginia to texas, a discrim — of discrimination based on race. on color. maybe some of us need to study a little contemporary history dealing with the question of voting rights. just think, before the voting rights act of 1965, it was almost impossible for many people in the state of georgia, in alabama new york virginia, in texas, to register to vote, to participate in the democratic process. the state of mississippi, for example, had a black voting aged population of more than 450,000 and only about 16,000 were registered to vote. one county in alabama was more than 80% but not more than — but not a single registered african-american voter, people had to pass a literacy test. one man was asked to count the jelly beans in a jar. it’s shameful to come here tonight and say to the department of justice you must not use one penny, one cent, one dime, one dollar to carry out the mandate of section 5 of the voting rights act. we should be opening up the political process and letting all our citizens come in and participate. people died for the right to vote. friends of mine. colleagues of mine. speak out against this amendment. it doesn’t have a place. i yield to the chairman. this is — i agree with the chairman. this is not the place. i will not yield. i urge my colleagues to vote against this amendment.

1788 – The Constitutional Convention


New York City Becomes America’s First Capital 

U.S. #2346 pictures the former national capital at Federal Hall. The building was later demolished in 1812.

On September 13, 1788, New York City was established as America’s first capital under the Constitution of the United States.

New York had already hosted the nation’s legislature and served as the de facto capital since 1785. In late 1784, the Contental Congress, operating under the Articles of Confederation, voted to make New York City it’s meeting place until a federal district on the banks of the Delaware River near Philadelphia could be completed. They chose Old City Hall, which was then renamed Federal Hall, to serve as capital building. Federal Hall was then redesigned by Pierre Charles L’Enfant, who later became famous for designing the layout of Washington, D.C. Congress met for the first time in Federal Hall on January 11, 1785.

Three years later, the U.S. Constitution was ratified, outlining the roles of the national government. The new Congress had several decisions to make – including where the seat of government should be. It was an issue of great debate. Some wanted to remain in New York City, while others wanted to meet in Philadelphia, Annapolis, Baltimore, or Lancaster. Finally, on September 13, they passed an ordinance declaring the capital would remain at the “the present Seat of Congress,” specifically leaving out reference to New York City because of the bitterness felt by some.

The following year, Federal Hall was the site of Washington’s inauguration, the first meetings of Congress and the Supreme Court, and the drafting of the Bill of Rights. In 1790, talks continued on where the permanent capital would be. It was a controversial debate. Some wanted to make lower Manhattan into a federal district. Others didn’t want the capital to be in such a commercially-oriented location. In part, there were fears that the city might have aristocratic leanings, as members of high society still enjoyed British fashions and luxuries as well as court-style entertaining. After much debate, it was finally decided that New York wouldn’t make a suitable capital, largely due to financial concerns. Congress met for the last time in Federal Hall on August 12, 1790, before relocating to Philadelphia, and later Washington, D.C.

resource: mysticstamp.com … company

VAWA …This week marks the anniversary of the Violence Against Women Act, which was signed into law on September 13, 1994 ~


VAWAFactsheet: The Violence Against Women Act Under the leadership of then-Senator Joe Biden, Congress recognized the severity of violence against women and our need for a national strategy with the enactment of the Violence Against Women Act in 1994.

This landmark federal legislation’s comprehensive approach to violence against women combined tough new provisions to hold offenders accountable with programs to provide services for the victims of such violence. VAWA has improved the criminal justice response to violence against women by:

• holding rapists accountable for their crimes by strengthening federal penalties for repeat sex offenders and creating a federal “rape shield law,” which is intended to prevent offenders from using victims’ past sexual conduct against them during a rape trial;

• mandating that victims, no matter their income levels, are not forced to bear the expense of their own rape exams or for service of a protection order;

• keeping victims safe by requiring that a victim’s protection order will be recognized and enforced in all state, tribal, and territorial jurisdictions within the United States;

• increasing rates of prosecution, conviction, and sentencing of offenders by helping communities develop dedicated law enforcement and prosecution units and domestic violence dockets; • ensuring that police respond to crisis calls and judges understand the realities of domestic and sexual violence by training law enforcement officers, prosecutors, victim advocates and judges; VAWA funds train over 500,000 law enforcement officers, prosecutors, judges, and other personnel every year;

• providing additional tools for protecting women in Indian country by creating a new federal habitual offender crime and authorizing warrantless arrest authority for federal law enforcement officers who determine there is probable cause when responding to domestic violence cases. VAWA has ensured that victims and their families have access to the services they need to achieve safety and rebuild their lives by:

• responding to urgent calls for help by establishing the National Domestic Violence Hotline, which has answered over 3 million calls and receives over 22,000 calls every month; 92% of callers report that it’s their first call for help;

• improving safety and reducing recidivism by developing coordinated community responses that bring together diverse stakeholders to work together to prevent and respond to violence against women,

• focusing attention on the needs of underserved communities, including creating legal relief for battered immigrants so that abusers cannot use the victim’s immigration status to prevent victims from calling the police or seeking safety, and supporting tribal governments in building their capacity to protect American Indian and Alaska Native women. VAWA has created positive change. Since VAWA was passed:

• Fewer people are experiencing domestic violence.  Between 1993 to 2010, the rate of intimate partner violence declined 67%;  Between 1993 to 2007, the rate of intimate partner homicides of females decreased 35% and the rate of intimate partner homicides of males decreased 46%.

• More victims are reporting domestic and sexual violence to police, and reports to police are resulting in more arrests.

• States have reformed their laws to take violence against women more seriously:  All states have reformed laws that previously treated date or spousal rape as a lesser crime than stranger rape;  All states have passed laws making stalking a crime;  All states have authorized warrantless arrests in misdemeanor domestic violence cases where the responding officer determines that probable cause exists;  All states provide for criminal sanctions for the violation of a civil protection order;

 Many states have passed laws prohibiting polygraphing of rape victims;  Over 35 states, the District of Columbia, and the U.S. Virgin Islands have adopted laws addressing domestic and sexual violence, and stalking in the workplace. These laws vary widely and may offer a victim time off from work to address the violence in their lives, protect victims from employment discrimination related to the violence, and/or provide unemployment insurance to survivors who must leave their jobs because of the abuse.

Resource: whitehouse.gov