The Black Hawk war took place in Illinois and southern Wisconsin in the spring and summer of 1832. A band of Native Americans consisting of members of the Sauk tribe plus smaller numbers of other allied tribes under the leadership of the Sauk Chief Black Hawk crossed from Iowa into Illinois to dispute American expansion into their territory.
Black Hawk and his followers were defeated in the last military campaign against Native Americans east of the Mississippi River. Black Hawk surrendered at Fort Crawford in Prairie du Chien Wisconsin in August 1832, ending the war. Several individuals who played prominent roles in the Civil War served in the Black Hawk War,
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